Neurobiology of ADHD: A Review

  • Tejas R. MehtaEmail author
  • Alberto Monegro
  • Yash Nene
  • Muniba Fayyaz
  • Pradeep C. Bollu
ADHD (G Kulkarni, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on ADHD


Purpose of Review

ADHD is a complex neuropsychiatric condition which has been known to cause a lot of changes in the structural and functional aspects as well as neurochemistry of the brain.

Recent Findings

The structural aspects include changes primarily affecting but not limited to the prefrontal cortex, corpus striatum, and cerebellum. Dopamine and norepinephrine are the key neurotransmitters that are implicated in the pathophysiology of this condition. The above-mentioned neurotransmitter transporters and alterations or mutations to their genes have also been known to be a common finding in patients with ADHD.


This review article summarizes the intertwined relationship between different parts of the brain in patients with ADHD along with neurochemical and genetic basis of this disease. Larger studies should be conducted to have a better and definitive understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease.


ADHD Neurotransmitter Structural Neurobiological Neurochemistry 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tejas R. Mehta
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alberto Monegro
    • 2
  • Yash Nene
    • 1
  • Muniba Fayyaz
    • 1
  • Pradeep C. Bollu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical ScienceBuffaloUSA

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