Galantamine-Memantine Combination as an Antioxidant Treatment for Schizophrenia

  • Maju Mathew KoolaEmail author
  • Samir Kumar Praharaj
  • Anilkumar Pillai
Psychosis (A Ahmed, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Psychosis


Purpose of Review

The objective of this article is to highlight the potential role of the galantamine-memantine combination as a novel antioxidant treatment for schizophrenia.

Recent Findings

In addition to the well-known mechanisms of action of galantamine and memantine, these medications also have antioxidant activity. Furthermore, an interplay exists between oxidative stress, inflammation (redox-inflammatory hypothesis), and kynurenine pathway metabolites. Also, there is an interaction between brain-derived neurotrophic factor and oxidative stress in schizophrenia. Oxidative stress may be associated with positive, cognitive, and negative symptoms and impairments in white matter integrity in schizophrenia. The antipsychotic-galantamine-memantine combination may provide a novel strategy in schizophrenia to treat positive, cognitive, and negative symptoms.


A “single antioxidant” may be inadequate to counteract the complex cascade of oxidative stress. The galantamine-memantine combination as “double antioxidants” is promising. Hence, randomized controlled trials are warranted with the antipsychotic-galantamine-memantine combination with oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers in schizophrenia.


Antioxidant Clinical high risk Galantamine Memantine Oxidative stress Schizophrenia 



We thank Drs. Joshua Kantrowitz, Laura Rowland, and Iris Sommer for their valuable comments. This material was presented at the 57th American College of Neuropsychopharmacology meeting, December 9–13, 2018, Hollywood, Florida, USA; at the Schizophrenia International Research Society conference, April 10–14, 2019, Orlando, Florida, USA, and at the 74th Annual Society of Biological Psychiatry Scientific Conference, May 16-18, 2019, Chicago, Illinois, USA. The authors thank Ms. Sasha Koola for preparing Fig. 1.


The funding support to Pillai from NIH/NIMH (MH 097060) is acknowledged.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maju Mathew Koola
    • 1
    Email author
  • Samir Kumar Praharaj
    • 2
  • Anilkumar Pillai
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesGeorge Washington University School of Medicine and Health SciencesWashington, DCUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry, Kasturba Medical College, ManipalManipal Academy of Higher EducationManipalIndia
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry and Health Behavior, Medical College of GeorgiaAugusta UniversityAugustaUSA

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