Advertisement

Cognitive Dysfunction in Major Depressive Disorder: Cause and Effect

  • Matthew J. Knight
  • Natalie Aboustate
  • Bernhard T. Baune
Mood and Anxiety Disorders (C Harmer, Section Editor)
  • 28 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Mood and Anxiety Disorders

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a pervasive and debilitating mental illness, associated with significant emotional, social, and functional deficits. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive dysfunction is a core feature of MDD and may negatively interact with other clinical features of the illness (e.g., psychosocial dysfunction, illness onset). We review recent advances in our understanding of cognitive dysfunction in MDD and highlight the putative causes and effects of cognitive deficits in depressed patients.

Recent Findings

Recent findings in this domain point to a multifaceted pathology of cognitive deficits in MDD, with behavioural disengagement and chronic low-grade inflammation likely playing an antecedent role. Emerging evidence suggests an independent role for cognitive deficits in the development of psychosocial dysfunction, particularly in domains of occupational function, interpersonal relationships, and quality of life.

Summary

While the pathology of cognitive deficits in MDD is complex and multifaceted, recent advances provide clarity in select areas. Executive functioning stands out as a cognitive domain crucial to adaptive psychosocial status, highlighting the importance of remediating executive deficits with cognitive treatment. Low-grade inflammation may indicate a predisposition to severe, treatment-resistant depression and associated cognitive deficits. Screening for specific cognitive deficits and inflammatory markers in depressed patients may therefore prove crucial in the advancement of our detection and treatment of major depression.

Keywords

Major depression MDD Cognitive dysfunction Inflammation Executive function Psychosocial functioning 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

BB received speaker/consultation fees from AstraZeneca, Lundbeck, Pfizer, Takeda, Servier, Bristol Myers Squibb, Otsuka, and Janssen-Cilag. The remaining authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

All reported studies/experiments with human or animal subjects performed by the authors have been previously published and complied with all applicable ethical standards (including the Helsinki Declaration and its amendments, institutional/national research committee standards, and international/national/institutional guidelines).

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    World Health Organisation. Depression and other common mental disorders. World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/254610/1/WHO-MSD-MER-2017.2-eng.pdf. 2017. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/254610/1/WHO-MSD-MER-2017.2-eng.pdf. Accessed January, 2018 2018.
  2. 2.
    Whiteford HA, Degenhardt L, Rehm J, Baxter AJ, Ferrari AJ, Erskine HE, et al. Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2013;382(9904):1575–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vigo D, Thornicroft G, Atun R. Estimating the true global burden of mental illness. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2016;3(2):171–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rock PL, Roiser JP, Riedel WJ, Blackwell AD. Cognitive impairment in depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychol Med. 2014;44(10):2029–40.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291713002535.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bortolato B, F Carvalho A, S McIntyre R. Cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder: a state-of-the-art clinical review. CNS & Neurological Disorders-Drug Targets (Formerly Current Drug Targets-CNS & Neurological Disorders). 2014;13(10):1804–18.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    •• Cambridge OR, Knight MJ, Mills N, Baune BT. The clinical relationship between cognitive impairment and psychosocial functioning in major depressive disorder: a systematic review. Psychiatry Res. 2018;269:157–71. A comprehensive review of clinical research that supports a broad relationship between cognitive and psychosocial dysfunction in MDD. Longitudinal and cross-sectional data are reported separately, highlighting recent advances and future directions for cognitive research in MDD. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Evans VC, Iverson GL, Yatham LN, Lam RW. The relationship between neurocognitive and psychosocial functioning in major depressive disorder: a systematic review. J Clin Psychiatry. 2014;75(12):1359–70.  https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.13r08939.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Knight MJ, Air T, Baune BT. The role of cognitive impairment in psychosocial functioning in remitted depression. J Affect Disord. 2018;235:129–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Knight MJ, Baune BT. Psychosocial dysfunction in major depressive disorder—rationale, design, and characteristics of the cognitive and emotional recovery training program for depression (CERT-D). Front Psychiatry. 2017;8:280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McIntyre RS, Soczynska JZ, Woldeyohannes HO, Alsuwaidan MT, Cha DS, Carvalho AF, et al. The impact of cognitive impairment on perceived workforce performance: results from the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project. Compr Psychiatry. 2015;56:279–82.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.08.051.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Robinson OJ, Roiser JP, Sahakian BJ. Hot and cold cognition in major depressive disorder. Cognitive Impairment in Major Depressive Disorder: Clinical Relevance Biol Substrates, and Treatment Opportunities 2016:69.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Beck AT. The evolution of the cognitive model of depression and its neurobiological correlates. Am J Psychiatr. 2008;165(8):969–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®), (5th ed.). Washington, DC; 2013.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Baune BT, Renger L. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to improve cognitive dysfunction and functional ability in clinical depression--a systematic review. Psychiatry Res. 2014;219(1):25–50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2014.05.013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    • McIntyre RS, Best MW, Bowie CR, Carmona NE, Cha DS, Lee Y, et al. The THINC-integrated tool (THINC-it) screening assessment for cognitive dysfunction: validation in patients with major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2017;78(7):873–81.  https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.16m11329. The authors examine the validity of the THINC-integrated tool for detecting cognitive impairment in MDD patients. The results support the THINC-it tool as a brief and valid instrument which for detecting cognitive deficits in MDD patients relative to healthy controls. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Miller AH, Raison CL. The role of inflammation in depression: from evolutionary imperative to modern treatment target. Nat Rev Immunol. 2016;16(1):22–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chang Y-K, Labban J, Gapin J, Etnier JL. The effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance: a meta-analysis. Brain Res. 2012;1453:87–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Leventhal AM, Chasson GS, Tapia E, Miller EK, Pettit JW. Measuring hedonic capacity in depression: a psychometric analysis of three anhedonia scales. J Clin Psychol. 2006;62(12):1545–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pittenger C, Duman RS. Stress, depression, and neuroplasticity: a convergence of mechanisms. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008;33(1):88–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Baune BT, Miller R, McAfoose J, Johnson M, Quirk F, Mitchell D. The role of cognitive impairment in general functioning in major depression. Psychiatry Res. 2010;176(2–3):183–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2008.12.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Clark M, DiBenedetti D, Perez V. Cognitive dysfunction and work productivity in major depressive disorder. Expert review of Pharmacoeconomics & outcomes Research. 2016;16(4):455–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Greer TL, Furman JL, Trivedi MH. Evaluation of the benefits of exercise on cognition in major depressive disorder. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2017;49:19–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Erickson KI, Voss MW, Prakash RS, Basak C, Szabo A, Chaddock L, et al. Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2011;108(7):3017–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Luanaigh CÓ, Lawlor BA. Loneliness and the health of older people. Int Jo Geriatric Psychiatry: J Psychiatry of late life and Allied Sci. 2008;23(12):1213–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cacioppo JT, Hawkley LC. Perceived social isolation and cognition. Trends Cogn Sci. 2009;13(10):447–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kreutzmann J, Havekes R, Abel T, Meerlo P. Sleep deprivation and hippocampal vulnerability: changes in neuronal plasticity, neurogenesis and cognitive function. Neuroscience. 2015;309:173–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mayberg HS, Liotti M, Brannan SK, McGinnis S, Mahurin RK, Jerabek PA, et al. Reciprocal limbic-cortical function and negative mood: converging PET findings in depression and normal sadness. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156(5):675–82.  https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.156.5.675.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stange JP, Jenkins LM, Hamlat EJ, Bessette KL, DelDonno SR, Kling LR, et al. Disrupted engagement of networks supporting hot and cold cognition in remitted major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2018;227:183–91.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.10.018.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Roiser JP, Sahakian BJ. Hot and cold cognition in depression. CNS Spectr. 2013;18(3):139–49.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852913000072.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pessoa L. Precis on the cognitive-emotional brain. Behav Brain Sci. 2015;38:e71–66.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s0140525x14000120.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Langenecker SA, Dawson EL, Mickey BJ, Ransom MT, Walker SJ, Meyers KK et al., editors. Cognitive control and neuronal functioning biomarkers as predictors of treatment response in major depression. Biological Psychiatry; 2014: Elsevier Science Inc 360 Park Ave South, New York, NY 10010–1710 USA.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ochsner KN, Silvers JA, Buhle JT. Functional imaging studies of emotion regulation: a synthetic review and evolving model of the cognitive control of emotion. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012;1251(1):E1–E24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Erk S, Kleczar A, Walter H. Valence-specific regulation effects in a working memory task with emotional context. NeuroImage. 2007;37(2):623–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.05.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shackman AJ, Salomons TV, Slagter HA, Fox AS, Winter JJ, Davidson RJ. The integration of negative affect, pain and cognitive control in the cingulate cortex. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2011;12(3):154–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pessoa L. The cognitive-emotional amalgam. Behav Brain Sci. 2015;38:e91.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s0140525x14001083.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kobayashi S, Lauwereyns J, Koizumi M, Sakagami M, Hikosaka O. Influence of reward expectation on visuospatial processing in macaque lateral prefrontal cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2002;87(3):1488–98.  https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00472.2001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Raz G, Touroutoglou A, Wilson-Mendenhall C, Gilam G, Lin T, Gonen T, et al. Functional connectivity dynamics during film viewing reveal common networks for different emotional experiences. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2016;16(4):709–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Simon D, Stenstrom DM, Read SJ. The coherence effect: blending cold and hot cognitions. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2015;109(3):369–94.  https://doi.org/10.1037/pspa0000029.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Elliott R, Sahakian BJ, Herrod JJ, Robbins TW, Paykel ES. Abnormal response to negative feedback in unipolar depression: evidence for a diagnosis specific impairment. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1997;63(1):74–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Elliott R, Sahakian BJ, McKay AP, Herrod JJ, Robbins TW, Paykel ES. Neuropsychological impairments in unipolar depression: the influence of perceived failure on subsequent performance. Psychol Med. 1996;26(5):975–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Murphy FC, Michael A, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ. Neuropsychological impairment in patients with major depressive disorder: the effects of feedback on task performance. Psychol Med. 2003;33(3):455–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Miskowiak KW, Carvalho AF. ‘Hot’ cognition in major depressive disorder: a systematic review. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2014;13(10):1787–803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Yoon KL, LeMoult J, Joormann J. Updating emotional content in working memory: a depression-specific deficit? J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2014;45(3):368–74.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2014.03.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Surguladze S, Brammer MJ, Keedwell P, Giampietro V, Young AW, Travis MJ, et al. A differential pattern of neural response toward sad versus happy facial expressions in major depressive disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;57(3):201–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.10.028.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Siegle GJ, Thompson W, Carter CS, Steinhauer SR, Thase ME. Increased amygdala and decreased dorsolateral prefrontal BOLD responses in unipolar depression: related and independent features. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61(2):198–209.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.05.048.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Fales CL, Barch DM, Rundle MM, Mintun MA, Mathews J, Snyder AZ, et al. Antidepressant treatment normalizes hypoactivity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during emotional interference processing in major depression. J Affect Disord. 2009;112(1–3):206–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2008.04.027.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fu CY, Williams SR, Cleare AJ, et al. Attenuation of the neural response to sad faces in major depression by antidepressant treatment: a prospective, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61(9):877–89.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.61.9.877.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Disner SG, Beevers CG, Haigh EAP, Beck AT. Neural mechanisms of the cognitive model of depression. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2011;12:467–77.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn3027.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Schaefer HS, Putnam KM, Benca RM, Davidson RJ. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging measures of neural activity to positive social stimuli in pre- and post-treatment depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;60(9):974–86.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.03.024.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fourrier C, Sampson E, Mills NT, Baune BT. Anti-inflammatory treatment of depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of vortioxetine augmented with celecoxib or placebo. Trials. 2018;In Press.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dowell NG, Cooper EA, Tibble J, Voon V, Critchley HD, Cercignani M, et al. Acute changes in striatal microstructure predict the development of interferon-alpha induced fatigue. Biol Psychiatry. 2016;79(4):320–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.05.015.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    • Harrison JE, Lophaven S, Olsen CK. Which cognitive domains are improved by treatment with vortioxetine? Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016;19(10):pyw054-pyw.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ijnp/pyw054. A follow-up analysis using data from a large scale RCT that reports the effectiveness of Vortioxetine in improving general cognitive performance in individuals with MDD. This study adds evidence to the hypothesis that cognitive dysfunction and depressive symptoms should be treated concurrently. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kraynak TE, Marsland AL, Wager TD, Gianaros PJ. Functional neuroanatomy of peripheral inflammatory physiology: a meta-analysis of human neuroimaging studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2018;94:76–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rosenblat JD, Brietzke E, Mansur RB, Maruschak NA, Lee Y, McIntyre RS. Inflammation as a neurobiological substrate of cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder: evidence, pathophysiology and treatment implications. J Affect Disord. 2015;188:149–59.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.Jad.2015.08.058.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Capuron L, Miller AH. Immune system to brain signaling: neuropsychopharmacological implications. Pharmacol Ther. 2011;130(2):226–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Blatteis CM, Bealer SL, Hunter WS, Llanos QJ, Ahokas RA, Mashburn TA Jr. Suppression of fever after lesions of the anteroventral third ventricle in guinea pigs. Brain Res Bull. 1983;11(5):519–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Freeman LR, Haley-Zitlin V, Rosenberger DS, Granholm A-C. Damaging effects of a high-fat diet to the brain and cognition: a review of proposed mechanisms. Nutr Neurosci. 2014;17(6):241–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bettcher BM, Kramer JH. Longitudinal inflammation, cognitive decline, and Alzheimer’s disease: a mini-review. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2014;96(4):464–9.  https://doi.org/10.1038/clpt.2014.147.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Reichenberg A, Yirmiya R, Schuld A, Kraus T, Haack M, Morag A, et al. Cytokine-associated emotional and cognitive disturbances in humans. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58(5):445–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Eisenberger NI, Inagaki TK, Rameson LT, Mashal NM, Irwin MR. An fMRI study of cytokine-induced depressed mood and social pain: the role of sex differences. NeuroImage. 2009;47(3):881–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Harrison NA. Brain structures implicated in inflammation-associated depression. Inflammation-Associated Depression: Evidence, Mechanisms and Implications. Springer; 2016. p. 221–48.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Zalli A, Jovanova O, Hoogendijk W, Tiemeier H, Carvalho L. Low-grade inflammation predicts persistence of depressive symptoms. Psychopharmacology. 2016;233(9):1669–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    McAfoose J, Baune B. Evidence for a cytokine model of cognitive function. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2009;33(3):355–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bortolato B, Miskowiak KW, Köhler CA, Maes M, Fernandes BS, Berk M, et al. Cognitive remission: a novel objective for the treatment of major depression? BMC Med. 2016;14(1):9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Krishnadas R, Cavanagh J. Depression: an inflammatory illness? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2012;83:495–502.  https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2011-301779.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Franceschi C, Bonafè M, Valensin S, Olivieri F, De Luca M, Ottaviani E, et al. Inflamm-aging: an evolutionary perspective on immunosenescence. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000;908(1):244–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Baune BT, Smith E, Reppermund S, Air T, Samaras K, Lux O, et al. Inflammatory biomarkers predict depressive, but not anxiety symptoms during aging: the prospective Sydney Memory and Aging Study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012;37(9):1521–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mooijaart SP, Sattar N, Trompet S, Lucke J, Stott DJ, Ford I, et al. Circulating interleukin-6 concentration and cognitive decline in old age: the PROSPER study. J Intern Med. 2013;274(1):77–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Arfanakis K, Fleischman DA, Grisot G, Barth CM, Varentsova A, Morris MC, et al. Systemic inflammation in non-demented elderly human subjects: brain microstructure and cognition. PLoS One. 2013;8(8):e73107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Miralbell J, Soriano JJ, Spulber G, López-Cancio E, Arenillas JF, Bargalló N, et al. Structural brain changes and cognition in relation to markers of vascular dysfunction. Neurobiol Aging. 2012;33(5):1003.e9–e17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wersching H, Duning T, Lohmann H, Mohammadi S, Stehling C, Fobker M, et al. Serum C-reactive protein is linked to cerebral microstructural integrity and cognitive function. Neurology. 2010;74(13):1022–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    McIntyre RS, Cha DS, Soczynska JK, Woldeyohannes HO, Gallaugher LA, Kudlow P, et al. Cognitive deficits and functional outcomes in major depressive disorder: determinants, substrates, and treatment interventions. Depress Anxiety. 2013;30(6):515–27.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22063.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    McIntyre RS, Lee Y. Cognition in major depressive disorder: a ‘Systemically Important Functional Index’(SIFI). Curr Opinion in Psychiatry. 2016;29(1):48–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Knight MJ, Baune BT. Executive subdomains are differentially associated with psychosocial outcomes in major depressive disorder. Front Psychiatry. 2018;9:309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kiosses DN, Alexopoulos GS. IADL functions, cognitive deficits, and severity of depression: a preliminary study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005;13(3):244–9.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00019442-200503000-00010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Baune BT. Does training of cognitive functions help affective remediation? London, England: SAGE Publications Sage UK; 2017.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Motter JN, Pimontel MA, Rindskopf D, Devanand DP, Doraiswamy PM, Sneed JR. Computerized cognitive training and functional recovery in major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2016;189:184–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    MacQueen GM, Memedovich KA. Cognitive dysfunction in major depression and bipolar disorder: assessment and treatment options. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2017;71(1):18–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Caldirola D, Grassi M, Riva A, Daccò S, De Berardis D, Dal Santo B, et al. Self-reported quality of life and clinician-rated functioning in mood and anxiety disorders: relationships and neuropsychological correlates. Compr Psychiatry. 2014;55(4):979–88.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.12.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Cotrena C, Branco LD, Shansis FM, Fonseca RP. Executive function impairments in depression and bipolar disorder: association with functional impairment and quality of life. J Affect Disord. 2016;190:744–53.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.11.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Weightman MJ, Air TM, Baune BT. A review of the role of social cognition in major depressive disorder. Front Psychiatry. 2014;5:179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Knight MJ, Baune BT. Cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder. Current opinion in psychiatry. 2018;31(1):26–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Harvey PD, Penn D. Social cognition: the key factor predicting social outcome in people with schizophrenia? Psychiatry (Edgmont). 2010;7(2):41–4.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Knight MJ, Baune BT. Social cognitive abilities predict psychosocial dysfunction in major depressive disorder. Depression Anxiety 2018:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22844.
  85. 85.
    Joormann J, Gotlib IH. Updating the contents of working memory in depression: interference from irrelevant negative material. J Abnorm Psychol. 2008;117(1):182–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    LeMoult J, Joormann J, Sherdell L, Wright Y, Gotlib IH. Identification of emotional facial expressions following recovery from depression. J Abnorm Psychol. 2009;118(4):828–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Bhagwagar Z, Cowen PJ, Goodwin GM, Harmer CJ. Normalization of enhanced fear recognition by acute SSRI treatment in subjects with a previous history of depression. Am J Psychiatr. 2004;161(1):166–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Roiser JP, Elliott R, Sahakian BJ. Cognitive mechanisms of treatment in depression. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012;37(1):117–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Iacoviello BM, Wu G, Alvarez E, Huryk K, Collins KA, Murrough JW, et al. Cognitive-emotional training as an intervention for major depressive disorder. Depress Anxiety. 2014;31(8):699–706.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22266.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Cooney RE, Joormann J, Eugene F, Dennis EL, Gotlib IH. Neural correlates of rumination in depression. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2010;10(4):470–8.  https://doi.org/10.3758/cabn.10.4.470.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Demeyer I, De Lissnyder E, Koster EH, De Raedt R. Rumination mediates the relationship between impaired cognitive control for emotional information and depressive symptoms: a prospective study in remitted depressed adults. Behav Res Ther. 2012;50(5):292–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2012.02.012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Boss L, Kang DH, Branson S. Loneliness and cognitive function in the older adult: a systematic review. Int Psychogeriatr. 2015;27(4):541–53.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s1041610214002749.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Riddle M, McQuoid DR, Potter GG, Steffens DC, Taylor WD. Disability but not social support predicts cognitive deterioration in late-life depression. Int Psychogeriatr. 2015;27(5):707–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Joormann J, Gotlib IH. Emotion regulation in depression: relation to cognitive inhibition. Cognit Emot. 2010;24(2):281–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Dunkin JJ, Leuchter AF, Cook IA, Kasl-Godley JE, Abrams M, Rosenberg-Thompson S. Executive dysfunction predicts nonresponse to fluoxetine in major depression. J Affect Disord. 2000;60(1):13–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Gorlyn M, Keilp JG, Grunebaum MF, Taylor BP, Oquendo MA, Bruder GE, et al. Neuropsychological characteristics as predictors of SSRI treatment response in depressed subjects. J Neural Transm. 2008;115(8):1213–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kampf-Sherf O, Zlotogorski Z, Gilboa A, Speedie L, Lereya J, Rosca P, et al. Neuropsychological functioning in major depression and responsiveness to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors antidepressants. J Affect Disord. 2004;82(3):453–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Morimoto SS, Kanellopoulos D, Manning KJ, Alexopoulos GS. Diagnosis and treatment of depression and cognitive impairment in late life. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2015;1345:36–46.  https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.12669.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Alexopoulos GS, Meyers BS, Young RC, Mattis S, Kakuma T. The course of geriatric depression with “reversible dementia”: a controlled study. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150(11):1693–9.  https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.150.11.1693.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mulsant BH. Problem-solving therapy reduces disability more than supportive therapy in older adults with major depression and executive dysfunction. Evid Based Ment Health. 2011;14(3):77.  https://doi.org/10.1136/ebmh.14.3.77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Alexopoulos GS, Raue PJ, Kiosses DN, Mackin RS, Kanellopoulos D, McCulloch C, et al. Problem-solving therapy and supportive therapy in older adults with major depression and executive dysfunction: effect on disability. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68(1):33–41.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.177.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew J. Knight
    • 1
  • Natalie Aboustate
    • 1
  • Bernhard T. Baune
    • 2
  1. 1.Discipline of Psychiatry, Adelaide Medical SchoolUniversity of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry, Melbourne Medical SchoolThe University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations