Frailty and Long-Term Post-Kidney Transplant Outcomes
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Purpose of Review
To highlight recent research about frailty and its role as a predictor of adverse, long-term post-kidney transplant (KT) outcomes.
Frailty is easily measured using the physical frailty phenotype (PFP) developed by gerontologist Dr. Linda Fried and colleagues. In recent studies, > 50% of KT recipients were frail (20%) or intermediately frail (32%) at KT admission. Frail recipients were at 1.3-times higher risk of immunosuppression intolerance and 2.2-times higher risk of mortality, even after accounting for recipient, donor, and transplant factors; these findings were consistent with those on short-term post-KT outcomes. Pilot data suggests that prehabilitation may be an intervention that increases physiologic reserve in frail KT recipients.
PFP is an effective tool to measure frailty in ESRD that improves risk stratification for short-term and long-term post-KT outcomes. Interventions to improve physiologic reserve and prevent adverse KT outcomes, particularly among frail KT recipients, are needed.
KeywordsFrailty Kidney transplantation Epidemiology
This study was supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK) grant numbers: R01DK114074 (PI: McAdams-DeMarco), K24DK101828 (PI: Segev), and the National Institute on Aging (NIA) grant numbers: R01AG042504 (PI: Segev), K01AG043501 (PI: McAdams-DeMarco), and R01AG055781 (PI: McAdams-DeMarco). Mara A. McAdams-DeMarco was also supported by the Johns Hopkins University Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Center (P30AG021334).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Mara McAdams-DeMarco, Nadia Chu, and Dorry Segev declare no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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