Cell Therapy: Past, Present, and Future
Purpose of Review
Cellular therapy started in the early twentieth century with the development of blood transfusion and later bone marrow transplantation. This review describes the historical origins and major milestones in the field of cellular therapy. We discuss ethical concerns associated with certain cell sources and how they influenced therapy strategies. A focus of this article is on the use of stem cells to understand regenerative repair after kidney injury. In addition, we give an overview over past and current kidney-related cellular therapy trials.
The number of kidney-related cellular therapy trials has been growing exponentially over the last 20 years. Main applications of kidney-related cellular therapy are in renal cancer and kidney transplant tolerance. The USA and China are the countries with the highest number of cellular therapy trials.
Cellular therapy, in combination with the recent advances in iPS cell generation and CRISPR-Cas 9, has a bright future. It has the potential to enable highly personalized therapy strategies to overcome problems associated with cancer therapy, transplant rejection, and organ regeneration.
KeywordsRegenerative medicine Kidney disease Renal clinical trial Current trends
MH and PVH would like to thank Prof. Norimoto Yanagawa, MD and the Chau-Li Foundation (to N.Y.) for financial support.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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