Measuring Alloreactive B Cell Responses in Transplant Recipients

  • Suheyla Hasgur
  • Anna ValujskikhEmail author
Immunology (R Fairchild, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Immunology
  2. Topical Collection on Immunology


Purpose of Review

Despite advanced immunosuppression, donor-specific antibodies (DSA) remain the leading cause of acute and chronic transplant tissue injury. Comprehensive evaluation of anti-donor humoral immune responses is critical for successful prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of antibody-mediated rejection. This review summarizes the evolution of techniques used for this purpose in experimental and clinical transplantation.

Recent Findings

For decades, measuring DSA serum levels was the only way to assess recipient humoral immunity. Recently, the interest shifted from quantifying circulating DSA to the analyses of various B cell subsets and most importantly, of donor antigen-specific B cells. State-of-the-art approaches have been developed by studies of model antigens, infectious agents, and autoimmunity. These methods are now being adopted by the transplantation field.


The complexity of humoral immunity caused by organ transplantation necessitates complementary approaches assessing both DSA and various B cell subsets to successfully target antibody-mediated rejection.


Organ transplantation Antibody-mediated rejection B cells Donor-specific antibody 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Anna Valujskikh reports grants from NIAID during the conduct of the study. Suheyla Hasgur declares no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Lerner Research Institute, NB30Cleveland ClinicClevelandUSA

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