Experimental Models of Penile and Lower Limb Transplantation: Are They Really Translational?
- 9 Downloads
Purpose of Review
The purpose of this review is to evaluate the recent literature about animal models for penile and lower limb transplantation, regarding their relevance to the clinical scenario.
Although both penile and lower limb transplantations have been sharing same problems with all other vascularized composite allotransplantations, they have their unique issues that need to be addressed. There is no appropriate animal model to demonstrate functions of both penile and lower limb transplantation.
We reevaluate and underline the interesting and important findings of the certain animal models of the penile and lower limb transplantation. Current and future clinical applicability and feasibility have also been discussed.
KeywordsExperimental model Vascularized composite allotransplantation Penile transplantation Lower extremity transplantation
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
- 2.• Sopko NA, Tuffaha SH, Lough D, Brandacher G, WPA L, Bivalacqua TJ, et al. Penile Allotransplantation for complex genitourinary reconstruction. J Urol. 2017;198(2):274–80 Comprehensive review for the penile transplant cases as well as penile transplant indications, preclinical models, and immunosuppression therapy.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.•• Merwe AV, Zarrabi A, Zuhlke A, Barsdorf N, Moosa R. Lessons learned from the world’s first successful penis allotransplantation. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2017;28(2):27 Points out the difficulties about management of pre- and postsurgical evaluations for penile transplantation.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.•• van der Merwe A, Graewe F, Zuhlke A, Barsdorf NW, Zarrabi AD, Viljoen JT, et al. Penile allotransplantation for penis amputation following ritual circumcision: a case report with 24 months of follow-up. Lancet. 2017;390(10099):1038–47 This is the first clinical report of penile allotransplantation.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Cetrulo CL, Jr., Li K, Salinas HM, Treiser MD, Schol I, Barrisford GW, et al. Penis transplantation: first US experience. Ann Surg. 2017.Google Scholar
- 8.Hoebeke P. Re: Weilie Hu, Jun Lu, Lichao Zhang, et al. A preliminary report of penile transplantation. Eur urol 2006;50:851–3. Eur Urol. 2007;51(4):1146–7.Google Scholar
- 14.•• Gorantla VS, Zor F, Nasir S, Breidenbach WC, Davis MR. Lower extremity transplantation: concepts, challenges, and controversies. In: Tepe V, Peterson C, editors. Full Stride. New York: Springer; 2017. p. 195–212. Explains clearly preoperative and postoperative challenges of lower extremity transplantations.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 36.Ozer K. Rat hind limb and cremaster allograft transplantation model. In: Siemionow MZ, editor. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. London: Springer; 2015. p. 161–5.Google Scholar