Current Transplantation Reports

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 344–348 | Cite as

Experimental Models of Penile and Lower Limb Transplantation: Are They Really Translational?

  • Yalcin KulahciEmail author
  • Huseyin Karagoz
  • Fatih Zor
Vascularized Composite Allografts (V Gorantla and R Barth, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Vascularized Composite Allografts


Purpose of Review

The purpose of this review is to evaluate the recent literature about animal models for penile and lower limb transplantation, regarding their relevance to the clinical scenario.

Recent Findings

Although both penile and lower limb transplantations have been sharing same problems with all other vascularized composite allotransplantations, they have their unique issues that need to be addressed. There is no appropriate animal model to demonstrate functions of both penile and lower limb transplantation.


We reevaluate and underline the interesting and important findings of the certain animal models of the penile and lower limb transplantation. Current and future clinical applicability and feasibility have also been discussed.


Experimental model Vascularized composite allotransplantation Penile transplantation Lower extremity transplantation 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeon and Hand Surgeon, Little LabUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic SurgeonWake Forest Institute for Regenerative MedicineWinston-SalemUSA

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