Experimental Models of Penile and Lower Limb Transplantation: Are They Really Translational?
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Purpose of Review
The purpose of this review is to evaluate the recent literature about animal models for penile and lower limb transplantation, regarding their relevance to the clinical scenario.
Although both penile and lower limb transplantations have been sharing same problems with all other vascularized composite allotransplantations, they have their unique issues that need to be addressed. There is no appropriate animal model to demonstrate functions of both penile and lower limb transplantation.
We reevaluate and underline the interesting and important findings of the certain animal models of the penile and lower limb transplantation. Current and future clinical applicability and feasibility have also been discussed.
KeywordsExperimental model Vascularized composite allotransplantation Penile transplantation Lower extremity transplantation
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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