Advertisement

Current Epidemiology Reports

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 347–363 | Cite as

Association of Cardiovascular Health and Cognition

  • Ambar KulshreshthaEmail author
  • Jannat Saini
  • Taylor German
  • Alvaro Alonso
Cardiovascular Disease (R Foraker, Section Editor)
  • 18 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Cardiovascular Disease

Abstract

Purpose of Review

More than a third of dementia cases are potentially attributable to modifiable risk factors. The objective of this review is to summarize the evidence linking overall cardiovascular health (CVH) profile and modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRF) with cognition.

Recent Findings

We conducted online searches for all relevant literature describing the relationship between CVDRF, overall CVH profile, and dementia. Studies have shown a positive association with the presence of clinical or subclinical CVD and accelerated cognitive decline. Individual CVH factors such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, physical activity, and diet are independently associated with cognition. The association is, however, less clear for dyslipidemia and obesity. The mechanisms that define these associations are complex and mainly derived from vascular and cellular pathways affecting amyloid beta burden and brain volume.

Summary

This review summarizes salient literature that highlight the role of a favorable CVH profile and optimum CVDRF levels, particularly in midlife to prevent decline in cognitive function.

Keywords

Cardiovascular diseases Cognition Cardiovascular health Dementia Risk factors Epidemiology 

Notes

Compliance With Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Ambar Kulshreshtha was supported by grant from the Alzheimer’s Association, AACSFD-17- 533468. Alvaro Alonso was supported by NIH grant U01HL096902 and American Heart Association grant 16EIA26410001. Jannat Saini and Taylor German each declare no potential conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the author.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    •• Prince M, Bryce R, Albanese E, Wimo A, Ribeiro W, Ferri CP. The global prevalence of dementia: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Alzheimers Dement. 2013;9(1):63–75 e2.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2012.11.007 A large systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the global prevalence of dementia (recent). Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Leritz EC, McGlinchey RE, Kellison I, Rudolph JL, Milberg WP. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and cognition in the elderly. Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep. 2011;5(5):407–12.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12170-011-0189-x.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    • Stampfer MJ. Cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease: common links. J Intern Med. 2006;260(3):211–23.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.2006.01687.x Common links between cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer’s published in a journal with high impact factor. Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    • Santos CY, Snyder PJ, Wu WC, Zhang M, Echeverria A, Alber J. Pathophysiologic relationship between Alzheimer’s disease, cerebrovascular disease, and cardiovascular risk: a review and synthesis. Alzheimers Dement (Amst). 2017;7:69–87.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dadm.2017.01.005 Review of pathophysiologic relationship between Alzheimer’s and cerebrovascular disease listing cardiovascular risks. Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bjorck L, Rosengren A, Bennett K, Lappas G, Capewell S. Modelling the decreasing coronary heart disease mortality in Sweden between 1986 and 2002. Eur Heart J. 2009;30(9):1046–56.  https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehn554.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bennett K, Kabir Z, Unal B, Shelley E, Critchley J, Perry I, et al. Explaining the recent decrease in coronary heart disease mortality rates in Ireland, 1985-2000. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2006;60(4):322–7.  https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2005.038638.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Capewell S, Ford ES, Croft JB, Critchley JA, Greenlund KJ, Labarthe DR. Cardiovascular risk factor trends and potential for reducing coronary heart disease mortality in the United States of America. Bull World Health Organ. 2010;88(2):120–30.  https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.08.057885.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    • Barnes DE, Yaffe K. The projected effect of risk factor reduction on Alzheimer’s disease prevalence. Lancet Neurol. 2011;10(9):819–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(11)70072-2 Study in a high impact factor respected journal stating the effect of reducing risk factors on Alzheimer’s prevalence. Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    • Rose G. Sick individuals and sick populations. Int J Epidemiol. 2001;30(3):427–32 discussion 33–4. Discussion published in a respected journal.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Crous-Bou M, Minguillon C, Gramunt N, Molinuevo JL. Alzheimer’s disease prevention: from risk factors to early intervention. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2017;9(1):71.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13195-017-0297-z.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    •• Lloyd-Jones DM, Hong Y, Labarthe D, Mozaffarian D, Appel LJ, Van Horn L, et al. Defining and setting national goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction: the American Heart Association’s strategic Impact Goal through 2020 and beyond. Circulation. 2010;121(4):586–613.  https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192703 American Heart Association Impact Goal through 2020 and the future regarding cardiovascular disease reduction and health promotion. Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    • Benjamin EJ, Blaha MJ, Chiuve SE, Cushman M, Das SR, Deo R, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics-2017 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2017;135(10):e146–603.  https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000485 Recently published statistics on stroke from American Heart Association. Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Willcox BJ, He Q, Chen R, Yano K, Masaki KH, Grove JS, et al. Midlife risk factors and healthy survival in men. JAMA. 2006;296(19):2343–50.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.296.19.2343.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    • Folsom AR, Yatsuya H, Nettleton JA, Lutsey PL, Cushman M, Rosamond WD, et al. Community prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health, by the American Heart Association definition, and relationship with cardiovascular disease incidence. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;57(16):1690–6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2010.11.041 Prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health, going by the American Heart Association definition. Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    • Yang Q, Cogswell ME, Flanders WD, Hong Y, Zhang Z, Loustalot F, et al. Trends in cardiovascular health metrics and associations with all-cause and CVD mortality among US adults. JAMA. 2012;307(12):1273–83.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2012.339 Publication listing trends in cardiovascular health metrics and associations with all-cause and CVD mortality. Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schievink SHJ, van Boxtel MPJ, Deckers K, van Oostenbrugge RJ, Verhey FRJ, Kohler S. Cognitive changes in prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease: a 12-year follow-up in the Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS). Eur Heart J. 2017.  https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehx365.
  17. 17.
    An J, Li H, Tang Z, Zheng D, Guo J, Liu Y, et al. Cognitive impairment and risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality over 20-year follow-up: results from the BLSA. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018;7(15):e008252.  https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.117.008252.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Angermann CE, Frey A, Ertl G. Cognition matters in cardiovascular disease and heart failure. Eur Heart J. 2012;33(14):1721–3.  https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehs128.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Haring B, Leng X, Robinson J, Johnson KC, Jackson RD, Beyth R, et al. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline in postmenopausal women: results from the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2(6):e000369.  https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.113.000369.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stephan BCM, Harrison SL, Keage HAD, Babateen A, Robinson L, Siervo M. Cardiovascular disease, the nitric oxide pathway and risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2017;19(9):87.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11886-017-0898-y.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Duschek S, Schandry R. Reduced brain perfusion and cognitive performance due to constitutional hypotension. Clin Auton Res. 2007;17(2):69–76.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10286-006-0379-7.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Aichele S, Rabbitt P, Ghisletta P. Cardiovascular symptoms and longitudinal declines in processing speed differentially predict cerebral white matter lesions in older adults. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2018;78:139–49.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2018.06.010.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mahinrad S, Vriend AE, Jukema JW, van Heemst D, Sattar N, Blauw GJ, et al. Left ventricular hypertrophy and cognitive decline in old age. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;58(1):275–83.  https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-161150.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    • Petersen RC, Roberts RO, Knopman DS, Geda YE, Cha RH, Pankratz VS, et al. Prevalence of mild cognitive impairment is higher in men. The Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Neurology. 2010;75(10):889–97.  https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181f11d85 sex-based differences of mild cognitive impairment prevalence. Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Arntzen KA, Schirmer H, Wilsgaard T, Mathiesen EB. Impact of cardiovascular risk factors on cognitive function: the Tromso study. Eur J Neurol. 2011;18(5):737–43.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-1331.2010.03263.x.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kaffashian S, Dugravot A, Nabi H, Batty GD, Brunner E, Kivimaki M, et al. Predictive utility of the Framingham general cardiovascular disease risk profile for cognitive function: evidence from the Whitehall II study. Eur Heart J. 2011;32(18):2326–32.  https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehr133.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    • Kaffashian S, Dugravot A, Brunner EJ, Sabia S, Ankri J, Kivimaki M, et al. Midlife stroke risk and cognitive decline: a 10-year follow-up of the Whitehall II cohort study. Alzheimers Dement. 2013;9(5):572–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2012.07.001 Ten-year follow up of landmark Whitehall II cohort trial. Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    • Reis JP, Loria CM, Launer LJ, Sidney S, Liu K, Jacobs DR Jr, et al. Cardiovascular health through young adulthood and cognitive functioning in midlife. Ann Neurol. 2013;73(2):170–9.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.23836 Cardiovascular health in young adulthood and midlife cognitive functioning links. Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Weinstein G, Lutski M, Goldbourt U, Tanne D. C-reactive protein is related to future cognitive impairment and decline in elderly individuals with cardiovascular disease. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2017;69:31–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2016.11.002.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bleckwenn M, Kleineidam L, Wagner M, Jessen F, Weyerer S, Werle J, et al. Impact of coronary heart disease on cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease: a prospective longitudinal cohort study in primary care. Br J Gen Pract. 2017;67(655):e111–e7.  https://doi.org/10.3399/bjgp16X688813.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    •• Gonzalez HM, Tarraf W, Harrison K, Windham BG, Tingle J, Alonso A, et al. Midlife cardiovascular health and 20-year cognitive decline: atherosclerosis risk in communities study results. Alzheimers Dement. 2018;14(5):579–89.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2017.11.002 landmark trial.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gonzales MM, Ajilore O, Charlton RC, Cohen J, Yang S, Sieg E, et al. Divergent influences of cardiovascular disease risk factor domains on cognition and gray and white matter morphology. Psychosom Med. 2017;79(5):541–8.  https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000448.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    • Leng X, Espeland MA, Manson JE, Stefanick ML, Gower EW, Hayden KM, et al. Cognitive function and changes in cognitive function as predictors of incident cardiovascular disease: the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2018;73(6):779–85.  https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glx138 Landmark study results—predictors of incident cardiovascular disease in women. Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    •• Samieri C, Perier MC, Gaye B, Proust-Lima C, Helmer C, Dartigues JF, et al. Association of cardiovascular health level in older age with cognitive decline and incident dementia. JAMA. 2018;320(7):657–64.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.11499 Recent study researching examining the association of cardiovascular health level in older age, with cognitive decline and dementia in a respected journal. Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kontari P, Smith KJ. Risk of dementia associated with cardiometabolic abnormalities and depressive symptoms: a longitudinal cohort study using the English longitudinal study of ageing. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2019;34(2):289–98.  https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.5019.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    • Nash DT, Fillit H. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and cognitive impairment. Am J Cardiol. 2006;97(8):1262–5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.12.031 Publication in respected journal noting cardiovascular disease risk factors and cognitive impairment. Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Justin BN, Turek M, Hakim AM. Heart disease as a risk factor for dementia. Clin Epidemiol. 2013;5:135–45.  https://doi.org/10.2147/CLEP.S30621.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ettorre E, Cerra E, Marigliano B, Vigliotta M, Vulcano A, Fossati C, et al. Role of cardiovascular risk factors (CRF) in the patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2012;54(2):330–2.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2011.04.025.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    de Bruijn RF, Bos MJ, Portegies ML, Hofman A, Franco OH, Koudstaal PJ, et al. The potential for prevention of dementia across two decades: the prospective, population-based Rotterdam Study. BMC Med. 2015;13:132.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-015-0377-5.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    •• Iadecola C, Yaffe K, Biller J, Bratzke LC, Faraci FM, Gorelick PB, et al. Impact of hypertension on cognitive function: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension. 2016;68(6):e67–94.  https://doi.org/10.1161/HYP.0000000000000053 Recent statement from the American Heart Association on the impact of high blood pressure on cognitive function. Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Staessen JA, Richart T, Birkenhager WH. Less atherosclerosis and lower blood pressure for a meaningful life perspective with more brain. Hypertension. 2007;49(3):389–400.  https://doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000258151.00728.d8.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    • Vermeer SE, Hollander M, van Dijk EJ, Hofman A, Koudstaal PJ, Breteler MM, et al. Silent brain infarcts and white matter lesions increase stroke risk in the general population: the Rotterdam Scan Study. Stroke. 2003;34(5):1126–9.  https://doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.0000068408.82115.D2 Rotterdam Scan Study results on physiologic factors increasing stroke risk in general population. Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nagai M, Hoshide S, Kario K. Hypertension and dementia. Am J Hypertens. 2010;23(2):116–24.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ajh.2009.212.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    •• Staessen JA, Fagard R, Thijs L, Celis H, Arabidze GG, Birkenhager WH, et al. Randomised double-blind comparison of placebo and active treatment for older patients with isolated systolic hypertension. The Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) Trial Investigators. Lancet. 1997;350(9080):757–64 Landmark randomized double-blinded trial in Europe comparing placebo and active treatment for older patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ciobica A, Padurariu M, Bild W, Stefanescu C. Cardiovascular risk factors as potential markers for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Psychiatr Danub. 2011;23(4):340–6.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bomboi G, Castello L, Cosentino F, Giubilei F, Orzi F, Volpe M. Alzheimer’s disease and endothelial dysfunction. Neurol Sci. 2010;31(1):1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10072-009-0151-6.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lee BC, Mintun M, Buckner RL, Morris JC. Imaging of Alzheimer’s disease. J Neuroimaging. 2003;13(3):199–214.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Vicario A, Martinez CD, Baretto D, Diaz Casale A, Nicolosi L. Hypertension and cognitive decline: impact on executive function. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2005;7(10):598–604.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    • Shah NS, Vidal JS, Masaki K, Petrovitch H, Ross GW, Tilley C, et al. Midlife blood pressure, plasma beta-amyloid, and the risk for Alzheimer disease: the Honolulu Asia Aging Study. Hypertension. 2012;59(4):780–6.  https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.178962 Landmark trial on midlife hypertension and the risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    • Arvanitakis Z, Capuano AW, Lamar M, Shah RC, Barnes LL, Bennett DA, et al. Late-life blood pressure association with cerebrovascular and Alzheimer disease pathology. Neurology. 2018;91(6):e517–e25.  https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000005951 Recent publication on late-life hypertension and link with cerebrovascular and Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    • Tsivgoulis G, Alexandrov AV, Wadley VG, Unverzagt FW, Go RC, Moy CS, et al. Association of higher diastolic blood pressure levels with cognitive impairment. Neurology. 2009;73(8):589–95.  https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181b38969 Research linking higher diastolic blood pressure levels with cognitive impairment. Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    •• Knopman D, Boland LL, Mosley T, Howard G, Liao D, Szklo M, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive decline in middle-aged adults. Neurology. 2001;56(1):42–8 Publication in journal with high impact factor listing risk factors for cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline in middle-aged adults. Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fogari R, Mugellini A, Zoppi A, Lazzari P, Destro M, Rinaldi A, et al. Effect of telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide vs lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide combination on ambulatory blood pressure and cognitive function in elderly hypertensive patients. J Hum Hypertens. 2006;20(3):177–85.  https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jhh.1001964.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hoffman LB, Schmeidler J, Lesser GT, Beeri MS, Purohit DP, Grossman HT, et al. Less Alzheimer disease neuropathology in medicated hypertensive than nonhypertensive persons. Neurology. 2009;72(20):1720–6.  https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000345881.82856.d5.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    •• Beckett NS, Peters R, Fletcher AE, Staessen JA, Liu L, Dumitrascu D, et al. Treatment of hypertension in patients 80 years of age or older. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(18):1887–98.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa0801369 Respected journal stating treatment of high blood pressure in older adults. Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ogihara T, Saruta T, Rakugi H, Matsuoka H, Shimamoto K, Shimada K, et al. Target blood pressure for treatment of isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly: valsartan in elderly isolated systolic hypertension study. Hypertension. 2010;56(2):196–202.  https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.146035.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Forette F, Seux ML, Staessen JA, Thijs L, Babarskiene MR, Babeanu S, et al. The prevention of dementia with antihypertensive treatment: new evidence from the systolic hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) study. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162(18):2046–52.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    •• Group SMIftSR, Williamson JD, Pajewski NM, Auchus AP, Bryan RN, Chelune G, et al. Effect of intensive vs standard blood pressure control on probable dementia: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2019;321(6):553–61.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.21442 Landmark trial researching the effect of intensive versus standard blood pressure levels on dementia. Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    • Mossello E, Pieraccioli M, Nesti N, Bulgaresi M, Lorenzi C, Caleri V, et al. Effects of low blood pressure in cognitively impaired elderly patients treated with antihypertensive drugs. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(4):578–85.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.8164 Trial looking at the effects of low blood pressure in elderly patients with cognitive impairment, treated with blood pressure lowering drugs. Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Mayeda ER, Whitmer RA, Yaffe K. Diabetes and cognition. Clin Geriatr Med. 2015;31(1):101–15, ix.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cger.2014.08.021.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Zhou H, Yang J, Xie P, Dong Y, You Y, Liu J. Cerebral microbleeds, cognitive impairment, and MRI in patients with diabetes mellitus. Clin Chim Acta. 2017;470:14–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2017.04.019.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    • Biessels GJ, Strachan MW, Visseren FL, Kappelle LJ, Whitmer RA. Dementia and cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes and prediabetic stages: towards targeted interventions. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014;2(3):246–55.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70088-3 Recent research linking dementia and cognitive decline in patients with type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Stranahan AM. Models and mechanisms for hippocampal dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. Neuroscience. 2015;309:125–39.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.04.045.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Chatterjee S, Peters SA, Woodward M, Mejia Arango S, Batty GD, Beckett N, et al. Type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for dementia in women compared with men: a pooled analysis of 2.3 million people comprising more than 100,000 cases of dementia. Diabetes Care. 2016;39(2):300–7.  https://doi.org/10.2337/dc15-1588.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    • Yaffe K, Weston AL, Blackwell T, Krueger KA. The metabolic syndrome and development of cognitive impairment among older women. Arch Neurol. 2009;66(3):324–8.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archneurol.2008.566 Women’s health—researching cognitive impairment and metabolic syndrome in older adult women. Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Christman AL, Vannorsdall TD, Pearlson GD, Hill-Briggs F, Schretlen DJ. Cranial volume, mild cognitive deficits, and functional limitations associated with diabetes in a community sample. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2010;25(1):49–59.  https://doi.org/10.1093/arclin/acp091.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Butterfield DA, Di Domenico F, Barone E. Elevated risk of type 2 diabetes for development of Alzheimer disease: a key role for oxidative stress in brain. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1842(9):1693–706.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2014.06.010.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Reijmer YD, Brundel M, de Bresser J, Kappelle LJ, Leemans A, Biessels GJ, et al. Microstructural white matter abnormalities and cognitive functioning in type 2 diabetes: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(1):137–44.  https://doi.org/10.2337/dc12-0493.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Silzer T, Barber R, Sun J, Pathak G, Johnson L, O'Bryant S, et al. Circulating mitochondrial DNA: new indices of type 2 diabetes-related cognitive impairment in Mexican Americans. PLoS One. 2019;14(3):e0213527.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0213527.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    • Abner EL, Nelson PT, Kryscio RJ, Schmitt FA, Fardo DW, Woltjer RL, et al. Diabetes is associated with cerebrovascular but not Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology. Alzheimers Dement. 2016;12(8):882–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2015.12.006 Respected journal research into the association of diabetes with cerebrovascular disease and dementia finds no link with Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology. Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ho N, Sommers MS, Lucki I. Effects of diabetes on hippocampal neurogenesis: links to cognition and depression. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37(8):1346–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.03.010.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    • Roberts RO, Knopman DS, Geda YE, Cha RH, Pankratz VS, Baertlein L, et al. Association of diabetes with amnestic and nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment. Alzheimers Dement. 2014;10(1):18–26.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2013.01.001 Respected journal looking at the association of diabetes with mild cognitive impairment. Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Palta P, Carlson MC, Crum RM, Colantuoni E, Sharrett AR, Yasar S, et al. Diabetes and cognitive decline in older adults: the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017;73(1):123–30.  https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glx076.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    • Bancks MP, Carnethon MR, Jacobs DR Jr, Launer LJ, Reis JP, Schreiner PJ, et al. Fasting glucose variability in young adulthood and cognitive function in middle age: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(12):2579–85.  https://doi.org/10.2337/dc18-1287 Landmark study on fasting glucose variability in young adulthood and its impact on cognitive function in the middle age. Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    •• Launer LJ, Miller ME, Williamson JD, Lazar RM, Gerstein HC, Murray AM, et al. Effects of intensive glucose lowering on brain structure and function in people with type 2 diabetes (ACCORD MIND): a randomised open-label substudy. Lancet Neurol. 2011;10(11):969–77.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(11)70188-0 Landmark trial looking at the effects of intensive glucose lowering on brain structure and function in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    • Murray AM, Hsu FC, Williamson JD, Bryan RN, Gerstein HC, Sullivan MD, et al. ACCORDION MIND: results of the observational extension of the ACCORD MIND randomised trial. Diabetologia. 2017;60(1):69–80.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-016-4118-x Landmark trial—extended results. Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Simo R, Ciudin A, Simo-Servat O, Hernandez C. Cognitive impairment and dementia: a new emerging complication of type 2 diabetes-the diabetologist’s perspective. Acta Diabetol. 2017;54(5):417–24.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00592-017-0970-5.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wood WG, Li L, Muller WE, Eckert GP. Cholesterol as a causative factor in Alzheimer’s disease: a debatable hypothesis. J Neurochem. 2014;129(4):559–72.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jnc.12637.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Puglielli L, Tanzi RE, Kovacs DM. Alzheimer’s disease: the cholesterol connection. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6(4):345–51.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nn0403-345.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Takeda JRT, Matos TM, de Souza-Talarico JN. Cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive performance in aging. Dement Neuropsychol. 2017;11(4):442–8.  https://doi.org/10.1590/1980-57642016dn11-040015.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    • Evans RM, Emsley CL, Gao S, Sahota A, Hall KS, Farlow MR, et al. Serum cholesterol, APOE genotype, and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease: a population-based study of African Americans. Neurology. 2000;54(1):240–2 Population-based study in African Americans looking at the cardiovascular risk factors of Alzheimer’s disease. Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    • Kivipelto M, Helkala EL, Hanninen T, Laakso MP, Hallikainen M, Alhainen K, et al. Midlife vascular risk factors and late-life mild cognitive impairment: A population-based study. Neurology. 2001;56(12):1683–9 Population-based study researching midlife vascular risk factors affecting late-life mild cognitive impairment (respected journal). Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Solomon A, Kivipelto M, Wolozin B, Zhou J, Whitmer RA. Midlife serum cholesterol and increased risk of Alzheimer’s and vascular dementia three decades later. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2009;28(1):75–80.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000231980.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Refolo LM, Malester B, LaFrancois J, Bryant-Thomas T, Wang R, Tint GS, et al. Hypercholesterolemia accelerates the Alzheimer’s amyloid pathology in a transgenic mouse model. Neurobiol Dis. 2000;7(4):321–31.  https://doi.org/10.1006/nbdi.2000.0304.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    • Mielke MM, Zandi PP, Shao H, Waern M, Ostling S, Guo X, et al. The 32-year relationship between cholesterol and dementia from midlife to late life. Neurology. 2010;75(21):1888–95.  https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181feb2bf Trial looking at the relationship of cholesterol and dementia from midlife to late life. Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Chakrabarti S, Khemka VK, Banerjee A, Chatterjee G, Ganguly A, Biswas A. Metabolic risk factors of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease: implications in the pathology, pathogenesis and treatment. Aging Dis. 2015;6(4):282–99.  https://doi.org/10.14336/AD.2014.002.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    • Tan ZS, Seshadri S, Beiser A, Wilson PW, Kiel DP, Tocco M, et al. Plasma total cholesterol level as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease: the Framingham Study. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163(9):1053–7.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.163.9.1053 Part of a landmark trial. Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    • Anstey KJ, Lipnicki DM, Low LF. Cholesterol as a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline: a systematic review of prospective studies with meta-analysis. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008;16(5):343–54.  https://doi.org/10.1097/JGP.0b013e31816b72d4 Respected journal, systematic review. Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Menezes AR, Lavie CJ, Milani RV, O'Keefe J. The effects of statins on prevention of stroke and dementia: a review. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2012;32(5):240–9.  https://doi.org/10.1097/HCR.0b013e31825d2a03.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    • Cramer C, Haan MN, Galea S, Langa KM, Kalbfleisch JD. Use of statins and incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment without dementia in a cohort study. Neurology. 2008;71(5):344–50.  https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000319647.15752.7b Cohort study examining statin use and incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment without dementia. Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Clare L, Wu YT, Teale JC, MacLeod C, Matthews F, Brayne C, et al. Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors, cognitive reserve, and cognitive function in later life: a cross-sectional study. PLoS Med. 2017;14(3):e1002259.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002259.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Barnes DE, Haight TJ, Mehta KM, Carlson MC, Kuller LH, Tager IB. Secondhand smoke, vascular disease, and dementia incidence: findings from the cardiovascular health cognition study. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;171(3):292–302.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwp376.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Elbejjani M, Auer R, Jacobs DR Jr, Haight T, Davatzikos C, Goff DC Jr, et al. Cigarette smoking and gray matter brain volumes in middle age adults: the CARDIA brain MRI sub-study. Transl Psychiatry. 2019;9(1):78.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-019-0401-1.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    • Anstey KJ, von Sanden C, Salim A, O'Kearney R. Smoking as a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;166(4):367–78.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwm116 Meta-analysis in respected journal examining smoking as a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline. Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Almeida OP, Garrido GJ, Lautenschlager NT, Hulse GK, Jamrozik K, Flicker L. Smoking is associated with reduced cortical regional gray matter density in brain regions associated with incipient Alzheimer disease. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008;16(1):92–8.  https://doi.org/10.1097/JGP.0b013e318157cad2.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Tsai HJ, Chang FK. Associations of exercise, nutritional status, and smoking with cognitive decline among older adults in Taiwan: results of a longitudinal population-based study. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2019;82:133–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2018.12.008.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    • Richards M, Jarvis MJ, Thompson N, Wadsworth ME. Cigarette smoking and cognitive decline in midlife: evidence from a prospective birth cohort study. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(6):994–8 Prospective birth cohort study researching cigarette smoking and midlife cognitive decline. Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Momtaz YA, Ibrahim R, Hamid TA, Chai ST. Smoking and cognitive impairment among older persons in Malaysia. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Dement. 2015;30(4):405–11.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1533317514552318.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    • Wingbermuhle R, Wen KX, Wolters FJ, Ikram MA, Bos D. Smoking, APOE genotype, and cognitive decline: the Rotterdam Study. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;57(4):1191–5.  https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-170063 Landmark study looking at cardiovascular risk factors for cognitive decline. Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Chen X, Maguire B, Brodaty H, O'Leary F. Dietary patterns and cognitive health in older adults: a systematic review. J Alzheimers Dis. 2019;67(2):583–619.  https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-180468.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    • Adjibade M, Assmann KE, Julia C, Galan P, Hercberg S, Kesse-Guyot E. Prospective association between adherence to the MIND diet and subjective memory complaints in the French NutriNet-Sante cohort. J Neurol. 2019;266(4):942–52.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-019-09218-y French prospective cohort study examining association between MIND diet adherence and memory complaints. Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    •• Solfrizzi V, Custodero C, Lozupone M, Imbimbo BP, Valiani V, Agosti P, et al. Relationships of dietary patterns, foods, and micro- and macronutrients with Alzheimer’s disease and late-life cognitive disorders: a systematic review. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;59(3):815–49.  https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-170248 Systematic review of the impact of nutrition on Alzheimer’s disease and late-life cognitive disorders. Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Morris MC, Tangney CC, Wang Y, Sacks FM, Barnes LL, Bennett DA, et al. MIND diet slows cognitive decline with aging. Alzheimers Dement. 2015;11(9):1015–22.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2015.04.011.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Jacka FN, Cherbuin N, Anstey KJ, Sachdev P, Butterworth P. Western diet is associated with a smaller hippocampus: a longitudinal investigation. BMC Med. 2015;13:215.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-015-0461-x.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Crichton GE, Elias MF, Torres RV. Sugar-sweetened soft drinks are associated with poorer cognitive function in individuals with type 2 diabetes: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Br J Nutr. 2016;115(8):1397–405.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114516000325.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    • Frisardi V, Panza F, Seripa D, Imbimbo BP, Vendemiale G, Pilotto A, et al. Nutraceutical properties of Mediterranean diet and cognitive decline: possible underlying mechanisms. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;22(3):715–40.  https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-2010-100942 Publication reviewing possible underlying mechanisms linking diet and cognitive decline. Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Boraxbekk CJ, Salami A, Wahlin A, Nyberg L. Physical activity over a decade modifies age-related decline in perfusion, gray matter volume, and functional connectivity of the posterior default-mode network-a multimodal approach. Neuroimage. 2016;131:133–41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.12.010.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Tomporowski PD, Davis CL, Miller PH, Naglieri JA. Exercise and children’s intelligence, cognition, and academic achievement. Educ Psychol Rev. 2008;20(2):111–31.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-007-9057-0.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Erickson KIHC, Kramer AF. Physical activity, brain, and cognition. Curr Opin Behav Sci. 2015;4:27–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2015.01.005.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    • Sexton CE, Betts JF, Demnitz N, Dawes H, Ebmeier KP, Johansen-Berg H. A systematic review of MRI studies examining the relationship between physical fitness and activity and the white matter of the ageing brain. Neuroimage. 2016;131:81–90.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.09.071 Systematic review, fitness and activity links with cognition and aging. Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Song D, Yu DSF. Effects of a moderate-intensity aerobic exercise programme on the cognitive function and quality of life of community-dwelling elderly people with mild cognitive impairment: a randomised controlled trial. Int J Nurs Stud. 2019;93:97–105.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2019.02.019.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Hsieh SS, Chang YK, Hung TM, Fang CL. The effects of acute resistance exercise on young and older males’ working memory. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2016;22:286–93.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    • Brunt A, Albines D, Hopkins-Rosseel D. The effectiveness of exercise on cognitive performance in individuals with known vascular disease: a systematic review. J Clin Med. 2019;8(3):E294.  https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8030294 Systematic review of effectiveness of exercise on cognitive performance in people with vascular disease. Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Chang YK, Chi L, Etnier JL, Wang CC, Chu CH, Zhou C. Effect of acute aerobic exercise on cognitive performance: role of cardiovascular fitness. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2014;15:464–70.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Loprinzi PD, Kane CJ. Exercise and cognitive function: a randomized controlled trial examining acute exercise and free-living physical activity and sedentary effects. Mayo Clin Proc. 2015;90(4):450–60.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.12.023.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Booth JN, Leary SD, Joinson C, Ness AR, Tomporowski PD, Boyle JM, et al. Associations between objectively measured physical activity and academic attainment in adolescents from a UK cohort. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48(3):265–70.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092334.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Beydoun MA, Beydoun HA, Wang Y. Obesity and central obesity as risk factors for incident dementia and its subtypes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2008;9(3):204–18.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2008.00473.x.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Walther K, Birdsill AC, Glisky EL, Ryan L. Structural brain differences and cognitive functioning related to body mass index in older females. Hum Brain Mapp. 2010;31(7):1052–64.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.20916.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    • Fitzpatrick AL, Kuller LH, Lopez OL, Diehr P, O’Meara ES, Longstreth WT Jr, et al. Midlife and late-life obesity and the risk of dementia: cardiovascular health study. Arch Neurol. 2009;66(3):336–42.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archneurol.2008.582 Cardiovascular health study examining midlife and late life obesity links with dementia risk. Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    • Curtis JP, Selter JG, Wang Y, Rathore SS, Jovin IS, Jadbabaie F, et al. The obesity paradox: body mass index and outcomes in patients with heart failure. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(1):55–61.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.165.1.55 Publication researching body mass index and outcomes in patients with heart failure. Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    • Lieb W, Beiser AS, Vasan RS, Tan ZS, Au R, Harris TB, et al. Association of plasma leptin levels with incident Alzheimer disease and MRI measures of brain aging. JAMA. 2009;302(23):2565–72.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2009.1836 Respected journal, physiological associations of cardiovascular disease markers with Alzheimer’s disease and MRI measures of brain aging. Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Baumgart M, Snyder HM, Carrillo MC, Fazio S, Kim H, Johns H. Summary of the evidence on modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia: a population-based perspective. Alzheimers Dement. 2015;11(6):718–26.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2015.05.016.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    • Daviglus ML, Plassman BL, Pirzada A, Bell CC, Bowen PE, Burke JR, et al. Risk factors and preventive interventions for Alzheimer disease: state of the science. Arch Neurol. 2011;68(9):1185–90.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archneurol.2011.100 Risk factors and interventions to prevent Alzheimer’s disease. Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    •• Seshadri S, Wolf PA, Beiser A, Elias MF, Au R, Kase CS, et al. Stroke risk profile, brain volume, and cognitive function: the Framingham Offspring Study. Neurology. 2004;63(9):1591–9 Landmark trial, respected journal. Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    • Harrison SL, Ding J, Tang EY, Siervo M, Robinson L, Jagger C, et al. Cardiovascular disease risk models and longitudinal changes in cognition: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2014;9(12):e114431.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114431 Systematic review of cardiovascular disease risk models and cognitive changes. Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    •• Kivipelto M, Ngandu T, Laatikainen T, Winblad B, Soininen H, Tuomilehto J. Risk score for the prediction of dementia risk in 20 years among middle aged people: a longitudinal, population-based study. Lancet Neurol. 2006;5(9):735–41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(06)70537-3 Longitudinal study looking at dementia risk prediction in 20 years in midlife. Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    • Pase MP, Beiser A, Enserro D, Xanthakis V, Aparicio H, Satizabal CL, et al. Association of ideal cardiovascular health with vascular brain injury and incident dementia. Stroke. 2016;47(5):1201–6.  https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.012608 Respected journal researching association of ideal cardiovascular health with brain injury and dementia. Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Crichton GE, Elias MF, Davey A, Alkerwi A. Cardiovascular health and cognitive function: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e89317.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089317.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    • Thacker EL, Gillett SR, Wadley VG, Unverzagt FW, Judd SE, McClure LA, et al. The American Heart Association life’s simple 7 and incident cognitive impairment: The REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014;3(3):e000635.  https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.113.000635 Landmark study, respected journal. Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Gonzalez HM, Tarraf W, Gouskova N, Rodriguez CJ, Rundek T, Grober E, et al. Life’s simple 7’s cardiovascular health metrics are associated with Hispanic/Latino neurocognitive function: HCHS/SOL results. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;53(3):955–65.  https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-151125.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    • Gardener H, Wright CB, Dong C, Cheung K, DeRosa J, Nannery M, et al. Ideal cardiovascular health and cognitive aging in the Northern Manhattan Study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5(3):e002731.  https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.115.002731 Respected journal, researching links between ideal cardiovascular health and cognitive aging. Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Vu TT, Zhao L, Liu L, Schiman C, Lloyd-Jones DM, Daviglus ML, et al. Favorable cardiovascular health at young and middle ages and dementia in older age-the CHA study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019;8(1):e009730.  https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.009730.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    • Hessler JB, Ander KH, Bronner M, Etgen T, Forstl H, Poppert H, et al. Predicting dementia in primary care patients with a cardiovascular health metric: a prospective population-based study. BMC Neurol. 2016;16:116.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12883-016-0646-8 Prospective study looking at the prediction of dementia in primary care patients using cardiovascular health metrics. Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    • Larson EB, Yaffe K, Langa KM. New insights into the dementia epidemic. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(24):2275–7.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1311405 Respected journal looking into new trends in dementia. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ambar Kulshreshtha
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jannat Saini
    • 2
  • Taylor German
    • 3
  • Alvaro Alonso
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Family and Preventive MedicineEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public HealthEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Rollins School of Public HealthEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  4. 4.Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public HealthEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations