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Current Epidemiology Reports

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 303–315 | Cite as

Cholera

  • William Davis
  • Rupa Narra
  • Eric D. Mintz
Infectious Disease Epidemiology (A Reingold, Section Editor)
  • 173 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Infectious Disease Epidemiology

Abstract

Purpose of Review

This review describes the basic epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic aspects of cholera, highlights new developments within these areas, and presents strategies for applying currently available tools and knowledge more effectively.

Recent Findings

From 1990 to 2016, the reported global burden of cholera fluctuated between 74,000 and 595,000 cases per year; however, modeling estimates suggest the real burden is between 1.3 and 4.0 million cases and 95,000 deaths yearly. In 2018, the World Health Assembly endorsed a new initiative to reduce cholera deaths by 90% and eliminate local cholera transmission in 20 countries by 2030. New tools, including localized GIS mapping, climate modeling, whole genome sequencing, oral vaccines, rapid diagnostic tests, and new applications of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions, could support this goal. Challenges include a high proportion of fragile states among cholera-endemic countries, urbanization, climate change, and the need for cholera treatment guidelines for pregnant women and malnourished children.

Summary

Reducing cholera morbidity and mortality depends on real-time surveillance, outbreak detection and response; timely access to appropriate case management and cholera vaccines; and provision of safe water, sanitation, and hygiene.

Keywords

Cholera Vibrio cholerae Epidemiology 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Maryann Turnsek and Amy Lang in preparing this manuscript.

The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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© This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious DiseasesCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA

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