Investigation on the effect of reformer gas on availability terms and waste heat recovery from exhaust gases of an HCCI engine considering radiation heat transfer

  • 22 Accesses


The main purpose of the current study is to investigate the different effects of reformer gas on different availability terms and the capacity of waste heat recovery from a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine. A validated multizone model is utilized for HCCI engine simulation. Mass transfer and conductive heat transfer are considered between zones, and convection and radiation are considered between near-wall zone and combustion chamber walls. Four different percentages of reformer gas (0–30%) are added to main fuel, and its effects on the different availability terms are discussed. Thermomechanical availability, chemical availability, availability of work, availability loss due to convection heat transfer, availability loss due to radiation heat transfer and irreversibility are calculated. Thermal, dilution and chemical effects of reformer gas are computed separately. The results indicated that by reformer gas addition to main fuel, inlet chemical availability and availability of work reduce. Heat loss availability reduces by reformer gas addition. Irreversibility decreases by reformer gas addition and second law efficiency increases slightly. The total utilization efficiency of HCCI engines increases by reformer gas addition. The results showed that the dilution effect of RG on availability terms is more significant than its chemical and thermal effects. The dilution effect reduces both engine-produced work and second law efficiency.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12


  1. 1.

    Hountalas D, Katsanos C, Lamaris V (2007) Recovering energy from the diesel engine exhaust using mechanical and electrical turbocompounding. SAE technical paper

  2. 2.

    Sur A, Das RK (2017) Experimental investigation on waste heat driven activated carbon-methanol adsorption cooling system. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng 39(7):2735–2746

  3. 3.

    Talbi M, Agnew B (2002) Energy recovery from diesel engine exhaust gases for performance enhancement and air conditioning. Appl Therm Eng 22(6):693–702

  4. 4.

    Abusoglu A, Kanoglu M (2008) First and second law analysis of diesel engine powered cogeneration systems. Energy Convers Manag 49(8):2026–2031.

  5. 5.

    Srinivasan KK, Mago PJ, Krishnan SR (2010) Analysis of exhaust waste heat recovery from a dual fuel low temperature combustion engine using an organic Rankine cycle. Energy 35(6):2387–2399

  6. 6.

    Yang F, Dong X, Zhang H, Wang Z, Yang K, Zhang J, Wang E, Liu H, Zhao G (2014) Performance analysis of waste heat recovery with a dual loop organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system for diesel engine under various operating conditions. Energy Convers Manag 80:243–255.

  7. 7.

    Yang M-H, Yeh R-H (2014) Analyzing the optimization of an organic Rankine cycle system for recovering waste heat from a large marine engine containing a cooling water system. Energy Convers Manag 88:999–1010

  8. 8.

    Peris B, Navarro-Esbrí J, Molés F (2013) Bottoming organic Rankine cycle configurations to increase internal combustion engines power output from cooling water waste heat recovery. Appl Therm Eng 61(2):364–371.

  9. 9.

    Açıkkalp E, Aras H, Hepbasli A (2014) Advanced exergoeconomic analysis of a trigeneration system using a diesel-gas engine. Appl Therm Eng 67(1):388–395.

  10. 10.

    Daghigh R, Shafieian A (2016) An investigation of heat recovery of submarine diesel engines for combined cooling, heating and power systems. Energy Convers Manag 108:50–59.

  11. 11.

    Goyal R, Sharma D, Soni S, Gupta PK, Johar D (2015) An experimental investigation of CI engine operated micro-cogeneration system for power and space cooling. Energy Convers Manag 89:63–70

  12. 12.

    Du S, Wang R, Chen X (2017) Development and experimental study of an ammonia water absorption refrigeration prototype driven by diesel engine exhaust heat. Energy 130:420–432

  13. 13.

    Al-Nimr MdA, Alajlouni AA (2018) Internal combustion engine waste heat recovery by a thermoelectric generator inserted at combustion chamber walls. Int J Energy Res 42(15):4853–4865

  14. 14.

    Chegini S, Ehyaei M (2018) Economic, exergy, and the environmental analysis of the use of internal combustion engines in parallel-to-network mode for office buildings. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng 40(9):433

  15. 15.

    Sarabchi N, Saray RK, Mahmoudi S (2013) Utilization of waste heat from a HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) engine in a tri-generation system. Energy 55:965–976

  16. 16.

    Khaljani M, Saray RK, Bahlouli K (2016) Evaluation of a combined cycle based on an HCCI (homogenous charge compression ignition) engine heat recovery employing two organic Rankine cycles. Energy 107:748–760

  17. 17.

    Amjad AK, Saray RK, Mahmoudi SMS, Rahimi A (2011) Availability analysis of n-heptane and natural gas blends combustion in HCCI engines. Energy 36(12):6900–6909

  18. 18.

    Saxena S, Bedoya ID, Shah N, Phadke A (2013) Understanding loss mechanisms and identifying areas of improvement for HCCI engines using detailed exergy analysis. J Eng Gas Turbines Power 135:091505

  19. 19.

    Mamalis S, Babajimopoulos A, Assanis D, Borgnakke C (2014) A modeling framework for second law analysis of low temperature combustion engines. Int J Engine Res.

  20. 20.

    Saxena S, Shah N, Bedoya I, Phadke A (2014) Understanding optimal engine operating strategies for gasoline-fueled HCCI engines using crank-angle resolved exergy analysis. Appl Energy 114:155–163

  21. 21.

    Jafarmadar S, Javani N (2014) Exergy analysis of natural gas/DME combustion in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines (HCCI) using zero-dimensional model with detailed chemical kinetics mechanism. Int J Exergy 15:363–381

  22. 22.

    Jafarmadar S, Nemati P (2016) Exergy analysis of diesel/biodiesel combustion in a homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine using three-dimensional model. Renew Energy 99:514–523

  23. 23.

    Neshat E, Saray RK (2014) Development of a new multi zone model for prediction of HCCI (homogenous charge compression ignition) engine combustion, performance and emission characteristics. Energy 73:325–339

  24. 24.

    Neshat E, Saray RK (2014) Effect of different heat transfer models on HCCI engine simulation. Energy Convers Manag 88:1–14

  25. 25.

    Annand WJD (1963) Heat transfer in the cylinder of reciprocating internal combustion engines. Proc Inst of Mech Eng 177:973–990

  26. 26.

    Golovitchev VI, Atarashiya K, Tanaka K, Yamada S (2003) Towards universal EDC-based combustion model for compression ignited engine simulation. Paper presented at the SAE

  27. 27.

    Rakopoulos CD, Michos CN, Giakoumis EG (2008) Availability analysis of a syngas fueled spark ignition engine using a multi-zone combustion model. Energy 33(9):1378–1398.

  28. 28.

    Voshtani S, Reyhanian M, Ehteram M, Hosseini V (2014) Investigating various effects of reformer gas enrichment on a natural gas-fueled HCCI combustion engine. Int J Hydrog Energy 39:19799–19809

  29. 29.

    Guo H, Neill WS (2013) The effect of hydrogen addition on combustion and emission characteristics of an n-heptane fuelled HCCI engine. Int J Hydrog Energy 38:11429–11437

  30. 30.

    Bedford F, Rutland C, Dittrich P, Raab A, Wirbeleit F (2000) Effects of direct water injection on DI diesel engine combustion. SAE technical paper

  31. 31.

    Tesfa BC (2011) Investigations into the performance and emission characteristics of a biodiesel fuelled CI engine under steady and transient operating conditions. University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield

  32. 32.

    Neshat E, Saray RK, Parsa S (2017) Numerical analysis of the effects of reformer gas on supercharged n-heptane HCCI combustion. Fuel 200:488–498.

  33. 33.

    Neshat E, Saray RK, Hosseini V (2016) Effect of reformer gas blending on homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion of primary reference fuels using multi zone model and semi detailed chemical-kinetic mechanism. Appl Energy 179:463–478

  34. 34.

    Reyhanian M, Hosseini V (2018) Various effects of reformer gas enrichment on natural-gas, iso-octane and normal-heptane HCCI combustion using artificial inert species method. Energy Convers Manag 159:7–19.

  35. 35.

    Fathi M, Saray RK, Checkel MD (2010) Detailed approach for apparent heat release analysis in HCCI engines. Fuel 89(9):2323–2330

  36. 36.

    Vressner A (2007) HCCI Engine using in-cylinder pressure, ion current and optical diagnostics. Lund University, Lund

  37. 37.

    Rakopoulosb CD, Scotta MA, Kyritsisa DC, Giakoumis EG (2008) Availability analysis of hydrogen/natural gas blends combustion in internal combustion engines. Energy 33(2):248–255

Download references


The authors thank gratefully Professor M. D. Checkel for providing the permission to conduct experiments in Engine Research Laboratory of University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. Our special thanks also go to Professor R. Khoshbakhti Saray for his invaluable help.

Author information

Correspondence to Elaheh Neshat.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Technical Editor: Fernando Marcelo Pereira, PhD.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Neshat, E., Asghari, M. Investigation on the effect of reformer gas on availability terms and waste heat recovery from exhaust gases of an HCCI engine considering radiation heat transfer. J Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng. 42, 55 (2020) doi:10.1007/s40430-019-2139-3

Download citation


  • Availability analysis
  • Waste heat recovery
  • Reformer gas
  • HCCI engine