Advertisement

Homogenisation of elastic properties in FDM components using microscale RVE numerical analysis

  • M. S. Anoop
  • P. SenthilEmail author
Technical Paper
  • 34 Downloads

Abstract

Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is an additive manufacturing method having the potential to fabricate functional components. As the inherent nature of additive structures, the component stiffness depends on the build parameters such as layer height and raster orientation in addition to the filament material properties. Even on FDM prints with 100% infill density, voids are formed along the interface of rasters and contribute to the characteristics of the component. The primary role of the present work is to determine elastic characteristics such as Young’s modulus, shear modulus and Poisson’s ratio of FDM components and study the effect of build parameters. The void geometry identified from the cross-sectional morphology was used to create a microscale representative volume element (RVE) model capturing the characteristics of the FDM print. The elastic constants of the microscale model RVE were estimated by volume average method and homogenised over the entire structure. The study also investigated the influence of layer height on the elastic behaviour of FDM components in two different raster orientations of 0° and 0°/90°. Both the conditions exhibited directional characteristics and the elasticity constants approaches filament characteristics with decreases in the layer height. The modulus of elasticity was found maximum in the direction of raster orientation, whereas the elasticity modulus along vertical direction exhibited the lowest. The components with 0°–90° raster orientation exhibited transversely isotropic characteristics. Thus, the actual cross-sectional morphology-based microscale numerical analysis can effectively predict the directional attributes of FDM prints.

Keywords

FDM Microscale numerical analysis Cross-sectional morphology RVE homogenisation Orthotropic property 

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    Ngo TD, Kashani A, Imbalzano G, Nguyen KTQ, Hui D (2018) Additive manufacturing (3D printing): a review of materials, methods, applications and challenges. Compos B 143:172–196.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2018.02.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Oropallo W, Piegl LA (2016) Ten challenges in 3D printing. Eng Comput 32:135–148.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00366-015-0407-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ning F, Cong W, Hu Z, Huang K (2017) Additive manufacturing of thermoplastic matrix composites using fused deposition modeling: a comparison of two reinforcements. J Compos Mater 51:3733–3742.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0021998317692659 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yang C, Wang B, Li D, Tian X (2017) Modelling and characterisation for the responsive performance of CF/PLA and CF/PEEK smart materials fabricated by 4D printing. Virtual Phys Prototyp 12:69–76.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17452759.2016.1265992 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Singh R, Ranjan N (2018) Experimental investigations for preparation of biocompatible feedstock filament of fused deposition modeling (FDM) using twin screw extrusion process. J Thermoplast Compos Mater 31:1455–1469.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0892705717738297 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mohan N, Senthil P, Vinodh S, Jayanth N (2017) A review on composite materials and process parameters optimisation for the fused deposition modelling process. Virtual Phys Prototyp 2759:47–59.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17452759.2016.1274490 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kumar S, Kurth J-P (2010) Composites by rapid prototyping technology. Mater Des 31:850–856.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2009.07.045 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Levenhagen NP, Dadmun MD (2018) Interlayer diffusion of surface segregating additives to improve the isotropy of fused deposition modeling products. Polymer 152:35–41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2018.01.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Boparai K, Singh R, Singh H (2015) Comparison of tribological behaviour for Nylon6-Al-Al2O3 and ABS parts fabricated by fused deposition modelling. Virtual Phys Prototyp 10:59–66.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17452759.2015.1037402 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yamamoto BE, Trimble AZ, Minei B, Ghasemi Nejhad MN (2019) Development of multifunctional nanocomposites with 3-D printing additive manufacturing and low graphene loading. J Thermoplast Compos Mater 32:383–408.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0892705718759390 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kaynak C, Varsavas SD (2018) Performance comparison of the 3D-printed and injection-molded PLA and its elastomer blend and fiber composites. J Thermoplast Compos Mater 32:501–520.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0892705718772867 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ilardo R, Williams CB (2010) Design and manufacture of a Formula SAE intake system using fused deposition modeling and fiber reinforced composite materials. Rapid Prototyp J 16:174–179.  https://doi.org/10.1108/13552541011034834 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Prada JG, Cazon A, Carda J, Aseguinolaza A (2016) Direct digital manufacturing of an accelerator pedal for a formula student racing car. Rapid Prototyp J 22:311–321.  https://doi.org/10.1108/RPJ-05-2014-0065 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Klippstein H, Diaz A, Sanchez DC, Hassanin H, Zweiri Y (2017) Fused deposition modeling for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs): a review. Adv Eng Mater 20:1–17.  https://doi.org/10.1002/adem.201700552 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cazón A, Prada JG, García E, Larraona GS, Ausejo S (2015) Pilot study describing the design process of an oil sump for a competition vehicle by combining additive manufacturing and carbon fibre layers. Virtual Phys Prototyp 10:149–162.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17452759.2015.1076240 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Javaid M, Haleem A (2018) Additive manufacturing applications in medical cases: a literature based review. Alex J Med 54:411–422.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajme.2017.09.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jain P, Kuthe AM (2013) Feasibility Study of manufacturing using rapid prototyping: FDM Approach. Procedia Eng 63:4–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2013.08.275 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Singh R, Singh S (2014) Development of nylon based FDM filament for rapid tooling application. J Inst Eng India Ser C 95:103–108.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40032-014-0108-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sunpreet S, Rupinder S (2016) Fused deposition modelling based rapid patterns for investment casting applications: a review. Rapid Prototyp J 22:123–143.  https://doi.org/10.1108/RPJ-02-2014-0017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jayanth N, Senthil P (2019) Application of 3D printed ABS based conductive carbon black composite sensor in void fraction measurement. Compos B 159:224–230.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2018.09.097 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Isakov DV, Lei Q, Castles F, Stevens CJ, Grovenor CRM, Grant PS (2016) 3D printed anisotropic dielectric composite with meta-material features. Mater Des 93:423–430.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2015.12.176 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gardner JM, Sauti G, Kim J, Cano RJ, Wincheski RA, Stelter CJ, Grimsley BW, Working DC, Siochi EJ (2016) 3-D printing of multifunctional carbon nanotube yarn reinforced components. Addit Manuf 12:38–44.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2016.06.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schmitz DP, Ecco LG, Dul S, Pereira ECL, Soares BG, Barra GMO, Pegoretti A (2018) Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of ABS carbon-based composites manufactured via fused deposition modelling. Mater Today Commun 15:70–80.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtcomm.2018.02.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Huang B, Singamneni S (2015) Raster angle mechanics in fused deposition modelling. J Compos Mater 49:363–383.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0021998313519153 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dizon JRC, Espera AH Jr, Chen Q, Advincula RC (2018) Review: mechanical characterization of 3D-printed polymers. Addit Manuf.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2017.12.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ahn SH, Montero M, Odell D, Roundy S, Wright PK (2002) Anisotropic material properties of fused deposition modeling ABS. Rapid Prototyp J 8:248–257.  https://doi.org/10.1108/13552540210441166 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sood AK, Ohdar RK, Mahapatra SS (2010) Parametric appraisal of mechanical property of fused deposition modelling processed parts. Mater Des 31:287–295.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2009.06.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Croccolo D, De Agostinis M, Olmi G (2013) Experimental characterization and analytical modelling of the mechanical behaviour of fused deposition processed parts made of ABS-M30. Comput Mater Sci 79:506–518.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.commatsci.2013.06.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dawoud M, Taha I, Ebeid SJ (2016) Mechanical behaviour of ABS: an experimental study using FDM and injection moulding techniques. J Manuf Process.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2015.11.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ziemian S, Okwara M, Ziemian CW (2015) Tensile and fatigue behavior of layered acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. Rapid Prototyp J 21:270–278.  https://doi.org/10.1108/rpj-09-2013-0086 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Abbott AC, Tandon GP, Bradford RL, Koerner H, Baur JW (2018) Process-structure-property effects on ABS bond strength in fused filament fabrication. Addit Manuf 19:29–38.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2017.11.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mcilroy C, Olmsted PD (2017) Disentanglement effects on welding behaviour of polymer melts during the fused-filament-fabrication method for additive manufacturing. Polymer 123:376–391.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2017.06.051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ravindrababu S, Govdeli Y, Wong ZW, Kayacan E (2018) Evaluation of the influence of build and print orientations of unmanned aerial vehicle parts fabricated using fused deposition modeling process. J Manuf Process 34:659–666.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2018.07.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Motaparti KP, Taylor G, Leu MC, Chandrashekhara K, Castle J, Matlack M (2017) Experimental investigation of effects of build parameters on flexural properties in fused deposition modelling parts. Virtual Phys Prototyp 12:207–220.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17452759.2017.1314117 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jiang S, Liao G, Xu D, Liu F, Li W, Cheng Y, Li Z, Xu G (2019) Mechanical properties analysis of polyetherimide parts fabricated by fused deposition modeling. High Perform Polym 31:97–106.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0954008317752822 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wang L, Gardner DJ (2017) Effect of fused layer modeling (FLM) processing parameters on impact strength of cellular polypropylene. Polymer 113:74–80.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2017.02.055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chacón JM, Caminero MA, García-Plaza E, Núñez PJ (2017) Additive manufacturing of PLA structures using fused deposition modelling: Effect of process parameters on mechanical properties and their optimal selection. Mater Des 124:143–157.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2017.03.065 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rajpurohit SR, Dave HK (2018) Effect of process parameters on tensile strength of FDM printed PLA part. Rapid Prototyp J 24:1317–1324.  https://doi.org/10.1108/RPJ-06-2017-0134 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lanzotti A, Grasso M, Staiano G, Martorelli M (2015) The impact of process parameters on mechanical properties of parts fabricated in PLA with an open-source 3-D printer. Rapid Prototyp J 21:604–617.  https://doi.org/10.1108/rpj-09-2014-0135 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tymrak BM, Kreiger M, Pearce JM (2014) Mechanical properties of components fabricated with open-source 3-D printers under realistic environmental conditions. Mater Des 58:242–246.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2014.02.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bhalodi D, Zalavadiya K, Gurrala PK (2019) Influence of temperature on polymer parts manufactured by fused deposition modeling process. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng 41:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40430-019-1616-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Casavola C, Cazzato A, Moramarco V, Pappalettere C (2016) Orthotropic mechanical properties of fused deposition modelling parts described by classical laminate theory. Mater Des 90:453–458.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2015.11.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Liu X, Shapiro V (2016) Homogenization of material properties in additively manufactured structures. Comput Aided Des 78:71–82.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cad.2016.05.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Domingo-Espin M, Puigoriol-Forcada JM, Garcia-Granada A-A, Llumà J, Borros S, Reyes G (2015) Mechanical property characterization and simulation of fused deposition modeling Polycarbonate parts. Mater Des 83:670–677.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2015.06.074 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rodriguez JF, Thomas JP, Renaud JE (2000) Characterization of the mesostructure of styrene materials. Rapid Prototyp J 6:175–186.  https://doi.org/10.1108/13552540010337056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Magalhães LC, Volpato N, Luersen MA (2014) Evaluation of stiffness and strength in fused deposition sandwich specimens. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng 36:449–459.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40430-013-0111-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Guessasma S, Belhabib S, Nouri H (2015) Significance of pore percolation to drive anisotropic effects of 3D printed polymers revealed with X-ray μ-tomography and fi nite element computation. Polymer 81:29–36.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2015.10.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rodríguez JF, Thomas JP, Renaud JE (2003) Mechanical behavior of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene fused deposition materials modeling. Rapid Prototyp J 9:219–230.  https://doi.org/10.1108/13552540310489604 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Omairey SL, Dunning PD, Sriramula S (2018) Development of an ABAQUS plugin tool for periodic RVE homogenisation. Eng Comput 35:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00366-018-0616-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Calneryte D, Barauskas R, Milasiene D, Maskeliunas R, Neciunas A, Ostreika A, Patasius M, Krisciunas A (2018) Multi-scale finite element modeling of 3D printed structures subjected to mechanical loads. Rapid Prototyp J 24:177–187.  https://doi.org/10.1108/RPJ-05-2016-0074 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Somireddy M, Czekanski A, Singh CV (2018) Development of constitutive material model of 3D printed structure via FDM. Mater Today Commun 15:143–152.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtcomm.2018.03.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Barbero EJ (2011) Finite element analysis of composite materials. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Production EngineeringNational Institute of TechnologyTiruchirappalliIndia

Personalised recommendations