Mechanical resistance of stepped lamination defects in a welded section of oil and gas pipeline: a finite element analysis

  • G. TeránEmail author
  • S. Capula-Colindres
  • J. C. Velázquez
  • D. Angeles-Herrera
  • O. G. Súchil
Technical Paper


The mechanical resistance of API 5L X52 steel with stepping lamination in the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and welding bead (WB) was studied by using the finite element method (FEM) in the present work. Both internal working pressure in the pipelines and internal pressure in the stepping laminations were studied to analyze the mechanical behavior of the pipelines. 3D FEM models and kinematic hardening were activated in the software used, while tests for the mechanical properties (true stress–strain curve) of BM, HAZ and WB were also conducted. The results demonstrated that stepping laminations in the BM–HAZ–WB zone reduced the ability to support internal pressure; therefore, the failure pressure (Pf) is also reduced. Pipeline failures occurred when the Von Mises stresses reached or exceeded the ultimate tensile stress (σUTS) of the material in the outer and inner wall and the stepping lamination sizes were too large. Failure in pipelines with stepping laminations occurred on the left side of the crack on the outer wall of the BM–HAZ zone; on the inner right side of the stepping laminations, the failure takes place on the inner wall in the WB.


Stepping lamination Pipeline Carbon steel Finite element method and crack 



Base metal


Finite element method


Atomic hydrogen


Heat affected zone


Hydrogen-induced cracking


Welding bead

List of symbols


Failure pressure


Yield stress


Ultimate tensile stress


Crack length


% stepping



The authors thank ESIQIE-IPN, CIC-IPN, ITSTA and CONACYT for the financial and material support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regrading the publication of his paper.


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Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Ingeniería Química Industrial, ESIQIEInstituto Politécnico NacionalMexico CityMexico
  2. 2.Laboratorio de Microtecnología y Sistemas EmbebidosCentro de Investigación en Computación del Instituto Politécnico NacionalMexico CityMexico
  3. 3.Posgrado e InvestigaciónInstituto Tecnológico Superior de TANTOYUCA (ITSTA)TantoyucaMexico

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