Thermogenesis mitigation using ultrasonic actuation during bone grinding: a hybrid approach using CEM43°C and Arrhenius model
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Bone grinding has cemented its applications in the various sorts of the neurosurgeries. Generally, a rotating burr is used to remove a part of the bone to expose the tumors present underneath the bone. The abrasion caused by the grinding wheel causes a rise in temperature owing to the generation of the heat during grinding and would have severe consequences with the initiation of thermogenesis. To bridge this gap, an in-house experimental setup was developed to perform multi-pass rotary ultrasonic neurosurgical bone grinding. Three functional characteristics, namely rotational speed, feed rate, and amplitude, have been investigated using Taguchi L18 orthogonal array design. The regression equations have been obtained and validated with confirmation experiments using a random set of machining parameters. Further, machining parameters are optimized using genetic algorithm and confirmatory trials are performed using optimized conditions. The results of statistical analysis (ANOVA) revealed that the feed rate is the most significant parameter influencing the change in temperature during osteotomy. Nevertheless, the standard deviation was most affected by rotational speed. Furthermore, a comparative analysis has been carried out for conventional and rotary ultrasonic neurosurgical grinding. A hybrid approach using cumulative equivalent minutes (CEM43°C) and Arrhenius model has been used to predict the thermal damage caused to the human body’s tissues during bone grinding. The results obtained have been experimentally validated, and outcomes revealed that ultrasonically actuated grinding burr may prevent osteonecrosis and neural damage duly supported with infrared thermograms and graphical plots.
KeywordsBone grinding Ultrasonic Genetic algorithm Infrared thermography CEM43°C Arrhenius equations
List of symbols
Tissue damage function
Pre-exponential factor (s−1)
Arrhenius activation energy (J/mol)
Universal gas constant (J/mol k)
Actual exposure temperature (°C)
Breaking point temperature
Cumulative number of equivalent minutes at 43 °C
Feed rate (mm/min)
Depth of cut (mm)
Change in temperature (°C)
Rotary ultrasonic neurosurgical grinding
The authors would like to express special thanks of gratitude to Dr. Deepak Agrawal, All India Institute of Medical Science (AIIMS), New Delhi, for their timely guidance and allowing them access to facilities by providing details of neurosurgical bone grinding operation and special visits to Out-Patient Department (OPD) to carefully examine the whole bone grinding operation prior to tumor removal.
The author(s) of this article has not received funding in any form from any financial body/institution.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
There are no potential conflicts of interest among all authors.
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