Experimental investigation of combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel–biodiesel–alcohol blends

  • Ümit AğbulutEmail author
  • Suat Sarıdemir
  • Serdar Albayrak
Technical Paper


The purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of diesel–biodiesel–alcohol blends on the combustion, performance and emissions characteristics of a single-cylinder diesel engine. Tests were conducted at different engine speeds of 1750, 2250, 2750 and 3250 rpm and under full load. In this study, different fuels [called as reference diesel (D100), 20 vol% cottonseed methyl ester (D80C20), 10 vol% ethanol (D90E10) and finally the ternary type of their derivations (D70C20E10)], were used. The experimental results showed that the highest reduction values were observed on CO emission by 42%, 30% and 8% for the D90E10, D70C20E10 and D80C20 fuels, respectively. These reductions for HC emission were achieved as 40%, 31% and 23% for the D90E10, D70C20E10 and D80C20, respectively. On the other hand, the reductions of NOx and CO2 emissions were not sharp and varied between 2–7%. Besides the reductions on the exhaust emissions, biodiesel–ethanol blend presented better results in terms of HRRmax and CPmax than using biodiesel alone. Additionally, ignition delay of the biodiesel blends was longer than that of D100 fuel owing to their low cetane numbers. Combustion duration was shortened with the increment in engine speed because the turbulence increased in the combustion chamber at high engine speed. This case also improved the homogeneity of test fuels and increased the quality of the combustion process. As a consequence, this paper clearly reported that it is possible to achieve fewer emissions, the highest CPmax values with the presence of ethanol in biodiesel fuels rather than using biodiesel alone for diesel engines.


Biodiesel–alcohol blends Combustion Diesel engine Emission Ternary blends 

List of symbols


Angle of maximum cylinder pressure (°CA)


Angle of maximum pressure increase (°CA)


Brake-specific fuel consumption (g/kWh)


Brake thermal efficiency


20% cottonseed biodiesel + 80% diesel (v/v)


100% cottonseed methyl ester


Combustion duration


Carbon monoxide


Carbon dioxide


Maximum cylinder pressure


20% cottonseed biodiesel + 80% diesel (v/v)


20% cottonseed biodisel + 10% ethanol + 70% diesel (v/v)


10% ethanol + 90% diesel (v/v)


Reference fuel—conventional diesel


Diesel fuel


Pollutant mass, i, referenced to Peff (g/kWh)


Exhaust emission value of components on dry basis, i, as volume share (ppm)


Exhaust emission value of components on wet basis, i, as volume share (ppm)




Maximum heat release rate (J/°CA)


Internal combustion engines


Polytrophic constant


Molecular mass of the components, i (g/mol)


Molecular mass of the exhaust gases on dry basis (g/mol)


Molecular mass of the exhaust gases on wet basis (g/mol)


Sodium hydroxide


Nitrogen oxide


Brake power (kW)


Particulate matter




Start of combustion (°CA)


Start of injection (°CA)


Top dead centre


Exhaust temperature (°C)


Unburnt hydrocarbon


Weight per cent


Volumetric ratio


Volumetric per cent

Ø or °CA

Crank angle

\(\partial P\)

Change in-cylinder pressure


Exhaust mass flow (kg/h)


Power output (kW)

\(\partial V\)

Change in-cylinder volume


Air–fuel equivalence ratio



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Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of TechnologyDüzce UniversityDüzceTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Aircraft Technology, Vocational SchoolIstanbul Istinye UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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