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Experimental investigation of combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel–biodiesel–alcohol blends

  • Ümit AğbulutEmail author
  • Suat Sarıdemir
  • Serdar Albayrak
Technical Paper

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of diesel–biodiesel–alcohol blends on the combustion, performance and emissions characteristics of a single-cylinder diesel engine. Tests were conducted at different engine speeds of 1750, 2250, 2750 and 3250 rpm and under full load. In this study, different fuels [called as reference diesel (D100), 20 vol% cottonseed methyl ester (D80C20), 10 vol% ethanol (D90E10) and finally the ternary type of their derivations (D70C20E10)], were used. The experimental results showed that the highest reduction values were observed on CO emission by 42%, 30% and 8% for the D90E10, D70C20E10 and D80C20 fuels, respectively. These reductions for HC emission were achieved as 40%, 31% and 23% for the D90E10, D70C20E10 and D80C20, respectively. On the other hand, the reductions of NOx and CO2 emissions were not sharp and varied between 2–7%. Besides the reductions on the exhaust emissions, biodiesel–ethanol blend presented better results in terms of HRRmax and CPmax than using biodiesel alone. Additionally, ignition delay of the biodiesel blends was longer than that of D100 fuel owing to their low cetane numbers. Combustion duration was shortened with the increment in engine speed because the turbulence increased in the combustion chamber at high engine speed. This case also improved the homogeneity of test fuels and increased the quality of the combustion process. As a consequence, this paper clearly reported that it is possible to achieve fewer emissions, the highest CPmax values with the presence of ethanol in biodiesel fuels rather than using biodiesel alone for diesel engines.

Keywords

Biodiesel–alcohol blends Combustion Diesel engine Emission Ternary blends 

List of symbols

ACPmax

Angle of maximum cylinder pressure (°CA)

AIPmax

Angle of maximum pressure increase (°CA)

BSFC

Brake-specific fuel consumption (g/kWh)

BTE

Brake thermal efficiency

C20

20% cottonseed biodiesel + 80% diesel (v/v)

C100

100% cottonseed methyl ester

CD

Combustion duration

CO

Carbon monoxide

CO2

Carbon dioxide

CPmax

Maximum cylinder pressure

D80C20

20% cottonseed biodiesel + 80% diesel (v/v)

D70C20E10

20% cottonseed biodisel + 10% ethanol + 70% diesel (v/v)

D90E10

10% ethanol + 90% diesel (v/v)

D100

Reference fuel—conventional diesel

DF

Diesel fuel

EPi

Pollutant mass, i, referenced to Peff (g/kWh)

EVi,d

Exhaust emission value of components on dry basis, i, as volume share (ppm)

EVi,w

Exhaust emission value of components on wet basis, i, as volume share (ppm)

HC

Hydrocarbon

HRRmax

Maximum heat release rate (J/°CA)

ICEs

Internal combustion engines

k

Polytrophic constant

Mi

Molecular mass of the components, i (g/mol)

MExh,d

Molecular mass of the exhaust gases on dry basis (g/mol)

MExh,w

Molecular mass of the exhaust gases on wet basis (g/mol)

NaOH

Sodium hydroxide

NOx

Nitrogen oxide

Pe

Brake power (kW)

PM

Particulate matter

RMS

Root-mean-square

SOC

Start of combustion (°CA)

SOI

Start of injection (°CA)

TDC

Top dead centre

Tex

Exhaust temperature (°C)

UHC

Unburnt hydrocarbon

wt%

Weight per cent

v/v

Volumetric ratio

vol%

Volumetric per cent

Ø or °CA

Crank angle

\(\partial P\)

Change in-cylinder pressure

mExh,d

Exhaust mass flow (kg/h)

peff

Power output (kW)

\(\partial V\)

Change in-cylinder volume

λ

Air–fuel equivalence ratio

Notes

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Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of TechnologyDüzce UniversityDüzceTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Aircraft Technology, Vocational SchoolIstanbul Istinye UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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