GMA welding metal transfer mode study by high-speed imaging and electrical signal acquisition

  • Gustavo Simões TeixeiraEmail author
  • José Antônio Esmerio Mazzaferro
Technical Paper


Weld metal transfer modes in gas metal arc welding process have an important role in electric arc stability, in the amount of absorbed gases by the melted metal in weld pool, allow out-of-position welding and influence in sparkles generation. The objective of the present work is to obtain images of the metal transfer to the weld pool, in order to better characterize the transfer mode boundaries. Besides, electric signals of welding current and voltage were acquired and compared with the generated images to confirm the results. High-speed imaging helps to identify the weld metal transfer mode. In this work, a high-speed camera and filter lenses were used to get images and movies of welding arcs generated by three different AWS ER70S-6 wire diameters (0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 mm). Also, different shielding gases and mixtures were tested (Ar, Ar + 2% O2, Ar + 10% CO2, Ar + 25% CO2 and CO2). Metal transfer modes could be observed at a frame rate of 5000 fps. Metal transfer mode maps were plotted to identify regions of each kind of metal transfer. Interchangeable globular/spray metal transfer occured in some cases of cyclic alternation between globular and spray transfer during the welding.


Weld metal Metal transfer Analysis techniques GMA welding Arc welding Imaging 



The authors would like to thank the Welding and Related Techniques Laboratory (LS&TC) for the equipment used in this work (welding sources, welding consumables, data acquisition system, CNC welding system) and the Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering (PROMEC) for the high-speed camera and lenses borrowing. No funds or grants were received for this work.


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Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Sul – Campus Rio GrandeRio GrandeBrazil
  2. 2.Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil

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