Real-time nonlinear adaptive force tracking control strategy for electrohydraulic systems with suppression of external vibration disturbance

  • Yu TangEmail author
  • Zhencai Zhu
  • Gang Shen
  • Guangchao Rui
  • Dong Cheng
  • Xiang Li
  • Yunjie Sa
Technical Paper


Electrohydraulic system (EHS) is extensively utilized in experimental testing field for exerting forces on specimen, and in many occasions, force tracking of EHS is confronted with external motion disturbance, which seriously deteriorates the force tracking performance. To address this problem, a real-time nonlinear adaptive force control strategy is developed in this paper. On the basis of the established nonlinear model for EHS, the proposed nonlinear adaptive force controller is obtained by a recursive backstepping method, where both servo-valve nonlinearity and parametric uncertainties of general electrohydraulic systems are accounted for during the controller design procedure. The first advantage for the proposed controller lies in the fact that the actuator’s vibration disturbance information is utilized to serve the purpose of accurate force tracking. Besides, parametric uncertainties are effectively handled by the developed online adaptive updating law to achieve a higher force replication performance. Moreover, rigorous Lyapunov stability of the proposed controller is guaranteed. Finally, comparative experiments are implemented on a uniaxial EHS through xPC/Target rapid prototyping technique, and the relevant results validate the feasibility of the developed controller.


Electrohydraulic system Force control Lyapunov stability Nonlinear control Adaptive control 



This research was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2017QNA16), Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (No. IRT_16R68), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD). The authors would like to thank the Editors, Associate Editors, and anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Foo E, Goodall RM (2000) Active suspension control of flexible-bodied railway vehicles using electro-hydraulic and electro-magnetic actuators. Control Eng Pract 8(5):507–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Milanés V, González C, Naranjo JE, Onieva E, De Pedro T (2010) Electro-hydraulic braking system for autonomous vehicles. Int J Auto Tech-Kor 11(1):89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yaoxing S, Hang Y, Zongxia J, Nan Y (2013) Matching design of hydraulic load simulator with aerocraft actuator. Chin J Aeronaut 26(2):470–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nakata N (2013) Effective force testing using a robust loop shaping controller. Earthq Eng Struct D 42(2):261–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shao X, Enyart G (2014) Development of a versatile hybrid testing system for seismic experimentation. Exp Tech 38(6):44–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yao J, Dietz M, Xiao R, Yu H, Wang T, Yue D (2016) An overview of control schemes for hydraulic shaking tables. J Vib Control 22(12):2807–2823MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yao J, Jiao Z, Ma D (2015) A practical nonlinear adaptive control of hydraulic servomechanisms with periodic-like disturbances. IEEE/ASME Trans Mech 99:1–9Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ye Y, Yin C, Gong Y, Zhou J (2016) Position control of nonlinear hydraulic system using an improved PSO based PID controller. Mech Syst Signal Pr 83:241–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Alleyne A, Rui L, Wright H (1998) On the limitations of force tracking control for hydraulic active suspensions. In: Proceedings of American Control Conference, Philadelphia, USA, pp 43–47Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baptista LF, Sousa JM, da Costa JMGS (2001) Fuzzy predictive algorithms applied to real-time force control. Control Eng Pract 9(4):411–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Truong DQ, Ahn KK (2009) Force control for hydraulic load simulator using self-tuning grey predictor—fuzzy PID. Mechatronics 19(2):233–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Niksefat N, Sepehri N (2001) Designing robust force control of hydraulic actuators despite system and environmental uncertainties. IEEE Contr Syst Mag 21(2):66–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wang SK, Wang JZ, Jb Zhao (2013) A case study of electro-hydraulic loading and testing technology for composite insulators based on iterative learning control. P I Mech Eng I-j Sys 227(6):498–506Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tang Y, Zhu Z, Shen G (2016) Design and experimental evaluation of feedforward controller integrating filtered-x LMS algorithm with applications to electro-hydraulic force control systems. P I Mech Eng C-J Mec 230(12):1951–1967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pan J, Shi GL, Zhu XM (2010) Force tracking control for an electro-hydraulic actuator based on an intelligent feed forward compensator. P I Mech Eng C-j Mec 224(4):837–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ledezma JA, De Pieri ER, De Negri VJ (2018) Force control of hydraulic actuators using additional hydraulic compliance. Stroj Vestn-J Mech E 64(10):579–589Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yao B, Bu F, Reedy J, Chiu GTC (2000) Adaptive robust motion control of single-rod hydraulic actuators: theory and experiments. IEEE/ASME Trans Mech 5(1):79–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jianyong Y, Wenxiang D, Zongxia J (2015) Adaptive control of hydraulic actuators with Lugre model-based friction compensation. IEEE T Ind Electron 62(10):6469–6477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yao JY, Jiao ZX, Ma DW (2014) Extended-state-observer-based output feedback nonlinear robust control of hydraulic systems with backstepping. IEEE T Ind Electron 61(11):6285–6293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nakkarat P, Kuntanapreeda S (2009) Observer-based backstepping force control of an electrohydraulic actuator. Control Eng Pract 17(8):895–902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yao J, Jiao Z, Yao B (2012) Robust control for static loading of electro-hydraulic load simulator with friction compensation. Chin J Aeronaut 25(6):954–962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jacazio G, Balossini G, Jacazio G, Balossini G (2007) Real-time loading actuator control for an advanced aerospace test rig. P I Mech Eng I-J Sys 221(2):199–210Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Z-x Jiao, J-x Gao, Hua Q, S-p Wang (2004) The velocity synchronizing control on the electro-hydraulic load simulator. Chin J Aeronaut 17(1):39–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang C, Jiao Z, Wu S, Shang Y (2013) An experimental study of the dual-loop control of electro-hydraulic load simulator (EHLS). Chin J Aeronaut 26(6):1586–1595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang C, Jiao Z, Quan L (2015) Adaptive velocity synchronization compound control of electro-hydraulic load simulator. Aerosp Sci Technol 42:309–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhu ZC, Tang Y, Shen G (2017) Experimental investigation of a compound force tracking control strategy for electro-hydraulic hybrid testing system with suppression of vibration disturbances. P I Mech Eng C-j Mec 231(6):1033–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Li GQ, Cao J, Zhang B, Zhao KD (2006) Design of robust controller in electrohydraulic load simulator. In: International conference on machine learning and cybernetics, Dalian, China, pp 779–784Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhao J, Shen G, Zhu W, Yang C, Yao J (2016) Robust force control with a feed-forward inverse model controller for electro-hydraulic control loading systems of flight simulators. Mechatronics 38:42–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sheng Z, Li Y (2016) Hybrid robust control law with disturbance observer for high-frequency response electro-hydraulic servo loading system. Appl Sci 6(4):98–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Karpenko M, Sepehri N (2012) Electrohydraulic force control design of a hardware-in-the-loop load emulator using a nonlinear QFT technique. Control Eng Pract 20(6):598–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Han S, Jiao Z, Yao J, Shang Y (2014) Compound velocity synchronizing control strategy for electro-hydraulic load simulator and its engineering application. J Dyn Control Syst 136(5):051002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wang C, Jiao Z, Wu S, Shang Y (2014) Nonlinear adaptive torque control of electro-hydraulic load system with external active motion disturbance. Mechatronics 24(1):32–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yao JY, Jiao ZX, Yao B (2014) Nonlinear adaptive robust backstepping force control of hydraulic load simulator: theory and experiments. J Mech Sci Technol 28(4):1499–1507MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wang C, Jiao Z, Quan L (2015) Nonlinear robust dual-loop control for electro-hydraulic load simulator. ISA T 59:280–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Mine Mechanical and Electrical Equipment, School of Mechanical and Electrical EngineeringChina University of Mining and TechnologyXuzhouChina
  2. 2.Zhengzhou Institute of Mechanical and Electrical EngineeringZhengzhouChina
  3. 3.Henan Key Laboratory of Underwater Intelligent EquipmentZhengzhouChina

Personalised recommendations