Evaluating influence degree of equal-channel angular pressing parameters based on finite element analysis and response surface methodology Technical Paper First Online: 28 January 2019 Abstract
The current paper presents a collection of numerical, mathematical, and statistical techniques to predict strain behavior and required pressing force of 7075 aluminum alloy within the different parameters of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). Accordingly, response surface methodology was utilized to estimate the contribution percentage of the processing parameters (i.e., die channel angle, outer corner angle, coefficient of friction, and punch rate) on effective plastic strain, standard deviation of effective strain, and required pressing force of the deformed sample; then, regression modeling relationships were presented for each of the three outputs. Also, a suitable coincidence was found between the predicted regression model, numerical approach, theoretical technique, and experimental work. It is found that the achieved results could be used as a successful guideline for evaluation of the ECAP process.
Keywords Response surface methodology Die geometry Processing parameters Strain behavior Required pressing force
Technical Editor: Lincoln Cardoso Brandão.
The authors would like to thank the Iran National Science Foundation (INSF) for the financial support of this work under the Grant No. 94810544.
Compliance with ethical standards Competing interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Edalati K, Horita Z (1935) A review on high-pressure torsion (HPT) from 1935 to 1988. Mater Sci Eng A 652(2016):325–352.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2015.11.074 CrossRef Google Scholar
Salih OS, Ou H, Sun W, McCartney DG (2015) A review of friction stir welding of aluminium matrix composites. Mater Des 86:61–71.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2015.07.071 CrossRef Google Scholar
Zhilyaev AP, Langdon TG (2008) Using high-pressure torsion for metal processing: fundamentals and applications. Prog Mater Sci 53:893–979.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2008.03.002 CrossRef Google Scholar
Sabirov I, Murashkin MY, Valiev RZ (2013) Materials science and engineering a nanostructured aluminium alloys produced by severe plastic deformation: new horizons in development. Mater Sci Eng, A 560:1–24.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2012.09.020 CrossRef Google Scholar
Al-Zubaydi ASJ, Zhilyaev AP, Wang SC, Reed PAS (2015) Superplastic behaviour of AZ91 magnesium alloy processed by high-pressure torsion. Mater Sci Eng, A 637:1–11.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2015.04.004 CrossRef Google Scholar
Jelliti S, Richard C, Retraint D, Roland T, Chemkhi M, Demangel C (2013) Effect of surface nanocrystallization on the corrosion behavior of Ti–6Al–4 V titanium alloy. Surf Coat Technol 224:82–87.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2013.02.052 CrossRef Google Scholar
Terhune SD, Swisher D, Oh-Ishi K, Horita Z, Langdon TG, McNelley TR (2002) An investigation of microstructure and grain-boundary evolution during ECA pressing of pure aluminum. Metall Mater Trans A Phys Metall Mater Sci 33:2173–2184.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-002-0049-x CrossRef Google Scholar
Rhodes CG, Mahoney MW, Bingel WH, Spurling RA, Bampton CC (1997) Effects of friction stir welding on microstructure of 7075 aluminum. Scr Mater 36:69–75.
https://doi.org/10.1016/s1359-6462(96)00344-2 CrossRef Google Scholar
Ebrahimi M, Gode C (2017) Severely deformed copper by equal channel angular pressing. Prog Nat Sci Mater Int 27:244–250.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnsc.2017.03.002 CrossRef Google Scholar
Sajadi A, Ebrahimi M, Djavanroodi F (2012) Experimental and numerical investigation of Al properties fabricated by CGP process. Mater Sci Eng, A 552:97–103.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2012.04.121 CrossRef Google Scholar
Tsuji N, Saito Y, Utsunomiya H, Tanigawa S (1999) Ultra-fine grained bulk steel produced by accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) process. Scr Mater 40:795–800.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-6462(99)00015-9 CrossRef Google Scholar
Ebrahimi M, Gholipour H, Djavanroodi F (2015) A study on the capability of equal channel forward extrusion process. Mater Sci Eng, A 650:1–7.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2015.10.014 CrossRef Google Scholar
Bahadori SR, Dehghani K, AkbariMousavi SAA (2015) Comparison of microstructure and mechanical properties of pure copper processed by twist extrusion and equal channel angular pressing. Mater Lett 152:48–52.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2015.03.063 CrossRef Google Scholar
Shamsborhan M, Ebrahimi M (2016) Production of nanostructure copper by planar twist channel angular extrusion process. J Alloys Compd 682:552–556.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.05.012 CrossRef Google Scholar
Valiev RZ, Langdon TG (2006) Principles of equal-channel angular pressing as a processing tool for grain refinement. Prog Mater Sci 51:881–981.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2006.02.003 CrossRef Google Scholar
Segal VM (1999) Equal channel angular extrusion: from macromechanics to structure formation. Mater Sci Eng, A 271:322–333.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-5093(99)00248-8 CrossRef Google Scholar
Segal VM (2002) Severe plastic deformation: simple shear versus pure shear. Mater Sci Eng, A 338:331–344
CrossRef Google Scholar
Shaeri MH, Shaeri M, Ebrahimi M, Salehi MT, Seyyedein SH (2016) Progress in natural science: materials international effect of ECAP temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–Zn–Mg–Cu alloy. Prog Nat Sci Mater Int 26:182–191.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnsc.2016.03.003 CrossRef Google Scholar
Suh J, Victoria-Hernández J, Letzig D, Golle R, Volk W (2016) Enhanced mechanical behavior and reduced mechanical anisotropy of AZ31 Mg alloy sheet processed by ECAP. Mater Sci Eng, A 650:523–529.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2015.09.058 CrossRef Google Scholar
Yoon SC, Jeong H-G, Lee S, Kim HS (2013) Analysis of plastic deformation behavior during back pressure equal channel angular pressing by the finite element method. Comput Mater Sci 77:202–207.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.commatsci.2013.04.054 CrossRef Google Scholar
Xu S, Zhao G, Ma X, Ren G (2007) Finite element analysis and optimization of equal channel angular pressing for producing ultra-fine grained materials. J Mater Process Technol 184:209–216.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2006.11.025 CrossRef Google Scholar
Yong Si J, Gao F, Zhang J (2012) Finite element analysis of die geometry and process conditions effects on equal channel angular extrusion for β-titanium alloy. J Iron Steel Res Int 19:54–58.
https://doi.org/10.1016/s1006-706x(12)60152-6 CrossRef Google Scholar
Kim HS, Seo MH, Hong SI (2002) Finite element analysis of equal channel angular pressing of strain rate sensitive metals. J Mater Process Technol 130:497–503
CrossRef Google Scholar
Kim HS (2001) Finite element analysis of equal channel angular pressing using a round corner die. Mater Sci Eng, A 315:122–128
CrossRef Google Scholar
Luis-Pérez CJ, Luri-Irigoyen R, Gastón-Ochoa D (2004) Finite element modelling of an Al–Mn alloy by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE). J Mater Process Technol 153–154:846–852.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2004.04.115 CrossRef Google Scholar
Yang YL, Lee S (2003) Finite element analysis of strain conditions after equal channel angular extrusion. J Mater Process Technol 140:583–587.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-0136(03)00796-9 CrossRef Google Scholar
Jiang H, Fan Z, Xie C (2009) Finite element analysis of temperature rise in CP–Ti during equal channel angular extrusion. Mater Sci Eng, A 513–514:109–114.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2009.01.044 CrossRef Google Scholar
Yoon SC, Seo MH, Krishnaiah A, Kim HS (2008) Finite element analysis of rotary-die equal channel angular pressing. Mater Sci Eng, A 490:289–292.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2008.01.037 CrossRef Google Scholar
Jung KH, Kim DK, Im YT, Lee YS (2013) Prediction of the effects of hardening and texture heterogeneities by finite element analysis based on the Taylor model. Int J Plast 42:120–140.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijplas.2012.10.006 CrossRef Google Scholar
Djavanroodi F, Omranpour B, Ebrahimi M, Sedighi M (2012) Progress in natural science: materials international designing of ECAP parameters based on strain distribution uniformity. Prog Nat Sci Mater Int 22:452–460.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnsc.2012.08.001 CrossRef Google Scholar
Dumoulin S, Roven HJ, Werenskiold JC, Valberg HS (2005) Finite element modeling of equal channel angular pressing: effect of material properties, friction and die geometry. Mater Sci Eng, A 410–411:248–251.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2005.08.103 CrossRef Google Scholar
Pashmforoush F, Esmaeilzare A (2017) Experimentally validated finite element analysis for evaluating subsurface damage depth in glass grinding using Johnson-Holmquist model. Int J Precis Eng Manuf 18:1841–1847.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12541-017-0213-2 CrossRef Google Scholar
Djavanroodi F, Ebrahimi M (2010) Effect of die channel angle, friction and back pressure in the equal channel angular pressing using 3D finite element simulation. Mater Sci Eng, A 527:1230–1235.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2009.09.052 CrossRef Google Scholar
Ebrahimi M, Attarilar S, Gode C, Djavanroodi F (2014) Damage prediction of 7025 aluminum alloy during equal-channel angular pressing. Int J Miner Metall Mater 21:990–998.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-014-1000-z CrossRef Google Scholar
Pashmforoush F, DelirBagherinia R (2018) Influence of water-based copper nanofluid on wheel loading and surface roughness during grinding of Inconel 738 superalloy. J Clean Prod 178:363–372.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.01.003 CrossRef Google Scholar Copyright information
© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2019