Tool wear and surface roughness analysis in milling with ceramic tools of Waspaloy: a comparison of machining performance with different cooling methods

  • Çagrı Vakkas YıldırımEmail author
  • Turgay Kıvak
  • Fehmi Erzincanlı
Technical Paper


Ceramic cutting tools are widely used particularly in high-speed machining of difficult-to-machine materials. However, using cutting fluid with these ceramic tools significantly reduces tool life. Therefore, the inclusion of a cooling/lubrication method into the process to improve the machining performance of ceramic tools will make machining efficiency much more effective. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of cutting parameters and cooling/lubricating conditions on tool wear and surface roughness in the milling of nickel-based Waspaloy with ceramic tools. The cutting tools selected for the study were Ti[C, N]-mixed alumina inserts (CC650), SiC whisker-reinforced alumina inserts (CC670) and alumina and SiAlON ceramic inserts (CC6060). The machining parameters comprised three different cooling/lubricating methods (dry, wet and MQL), three different cutting speeds (500, 600 and 700 m/min) and three different feed rates (0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 mm/rev). Analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of the machining parameters on tool wear and surface roughness. In addition, a regression analysis was conducted to identify the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. According to the experimental results, the minimum quantity lubrication method was identified as the best cooling method for minimum tool wear and surface roughness. In terms of ceramic grades, the SiAlON inserts provided better results in all experimental trials. The dominant wear types observed in all cutting tools were flank wear and notch wear.


Waspaloy Milling Tool wear Surface roughness Ceramic tool MQL 



The authors acknowledge with thanks the Duzce University Research Fund for financial support of this experimental study (Project No. 2015.07.04.335).


  1. 1.
    Motorcu AR, Kus A (2014) The evaluation of the effects of control factors on surface roughness in the drilling of Waspaloy superalloy. Measurement 58:394–408. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Caruso S, Imbrogno S, Rinaldi S, Umbrello D (2017) Finite element modeling of microstructural changes in Waspaloy dry machining. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 89:227–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ezugwu EO (2005) Key improvements in the machining of difficult-to-cut aerospace superalloys. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 45:1353–1367. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yildirim ÇV, Kivak T, Erzincanli F, Uygur İ, Sarikaya M (2017) Optimization of MQL parameters using the Taguchi method in milling of nickel based Waspaloy. Gazi Univ J Sci 30:173–186Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yıldırım ÇV, Kıvak T, Sarıkaya M, Erzincanlı F (2017) Determination of MQL parameters contributing to sustainable machining in the milling of nickel-base superalloy Waspaloy. Arab J Sci Eng. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Khan AA, Mohiuddin AKM, Norhamzan NH (2018) A comparative study on flank wear of ceramic and tungsten carbide inserts during high speed machining of stainless steel. Int J Appl Eng Res 13:2541–2544Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zeilmann RP, Fontanive F, Soares RM (2017) Wear mechanisms during dry and wet turning of Inconel 718 with ceramic tools. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 92:2705–2714. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zerrouki V, Vigneau J, Dudzinski D, Devillez A, Moufki A, Larrouque D (2004) A review of developments towards dry and high speed machining of Inconel 718 alloy. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 44:439–456. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Karpuschewski B, Schmidt K, Prilukova J, Be J (2013) Influence of tool edge preparation on performance of ceramic tool inserts when hard turning. J Mater Process Technol 213:1978–1988. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lima FF, Sales WF, Costa ES, da Silva FJ, Machado ÁR (2017) Wear of ceramic tools when machining Inconel 751 using argon and oxygen as lubri-cooling atmospheres. Ceram Int 43:677–685. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tian X, Zhao J, Qin W, Gong F, Wang Y, Pan H (2017) Performance of ceramic tools in high-speed cutting iron-based superalloys. Mach Sci Technol 21:279–290. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Amini S, Fatemi MH, Atefi R (2014) High speed turning of Inconel 718 using ceramic and carbide cutting tools. Arab J Sci Eng 39:2323–2330. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Altin A, Nalbant M, Taskesen A (2007) The effects of cutting speed on tool wear and tool life when machining Inconel 718 with ceramic tools. Mater Des 28:2518–2522. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Klocke F, Gerschwiler K, Fritsch R, Lung D (2006) PVD-coated tools and native ester—an advanced system for environmentally friendly machining. Surf Coat Technol 201:4389–4394. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sarikaya M, Güllü A (2014) Taguchi design and response surface methodology based analysis of machining parameters in CNC turning under MQL. J Clean Prod 65:604–616. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mandal N, Doloi B, Mondal B, Das R (2011) Optimization of flank wear using Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA) cutting tool: Taguchi method and regression analysis. Measurement 44:2149–2155. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Li L, He N, Wang M, Wang ZG (2002) High speed cutting of Inconel 718 with coated carbide and ceramic inserts. J Process Technol 129:127–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tasliyan A, Acarer M, Seker U, Gokkaya H, Demir B (2007) The effect of cutting parameters on cutting force during the processing of Inconel 718 superalloy. J Fac Eng Archit Gazi Univ 22:1–5Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dhar NR, Kamruzzaman M, Ahmed M (2006) Effect of minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) on tool wear and surface roughness in turning AISI-4340 steel. J Mater Process Technol 172:299–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhang S, Li JF, Wang YW (2012) Tool life and cutting forces in end milling Inconel 718 under dry and minimum quantity cooling lubrication cutting conditions. J Clean Prod 32:81–87. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pawade RS, Joshi SS, Brahmankar PK, Rahman M (2007) An investigation of cutting forces and surface damage in high-speed turning of Inconel 718. J Mater Process Technol 193:139–146. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    El-Bestawi MA, El-Wardany TI, Yan D, Tan M (1993) Performance of whisker-reinforced ceramic tools in milling nickel-based superalloy. CIRP Ann Technol 42:99–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cakir MC, İsik Y (2008) Investigating the machinability of austempered ductile irons having different austempering temperatures and times. Mater Des 29:937–942. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Korkut I, Kasap M, Ciftci I, Seker U (2004) Determination of optimum cutting parameters during machining of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel. Mater Des 25:303–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Choudhury IA, El-Baradie MA (1997) Surface roughness prediction in the turning of high-strength steel by factorial design of experiments. J Mater Process Technol 67:55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kivak T (2014) Optimization of surface roughness and flank wear using the Taguchi method in milling of Hadfield steel with PVD and CVD coated inserts. Meas J Int Meas Confed 50:19–28. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Airframes and Powerplants, Faculty of Aeronautics and AstronauticsErciyes UniversityKayseriTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of TechnologyDuzce UniversityDuzceTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringDuzce UniversityDuzceTurkey
  4. 4.Faculty of Aeronautics and AstronauticsErciyes UniversityKayseriTurkey

Personalised recommendations