Calibration of a CFD discharge process model of an off-road self-loading concrete mixer

  • Nicolò BeccatiEmail author
  • Cristian Ferrari
  • Antonino Bonanno
  • Matteo Balestra
Technical Paper


The aim of this paper is to calibrate a Eulerian–Eulerian multiphase CFD model for the discharge process of an off-road self-loading concrete mixer drum, by using the viscosity model applied to fresh concrete. Two different viscosity models for the simulated concrete were studied: the Newtonian fluid model and the Bingham fluid model. The final parameters applied for calibration were defined by means of comparisons between numerical simulations, literature search on concrete rheology, experimental tests of drum discharge process and experimental Abrams’ cone tests applied to concrete. The results show that concrete, simulated as a Bingham fluid, matches with the experimental results for the discharge process. On the other hand, a good fit between numerical and experimental results is not reached with concrete simulated as a Newtonian fluid. The calibration of the material model is essential in further numerical analyses for new mixer drums and concrete machinery production design.


Multiphase CFD Drum mixer Off-road vehicles Fresh concrete Bingham fluid 

List of symbols


Characteristic length (m)


Froude number


Standard gravity (m/s2)


Height (m)


Plastic viscosity (Pa s)


Power index


Critical speed (rpm)


Relative pressure (Pa)


Radius (m)


Bingham Reynolds number


Volume fraction


Slump (mm)


Slump time (s)


Scalar velocity (m/s)


Bulk velocity (m/s)


Apparent viscosity (Pa s)

\(\dot{\gamma }\)

Shear rate (1/s)


Newtonian viscosity (Pa s)


Density (kg/m3)


Surface tension coefficient (mN/m)


Yield stress (Pa)


Angular speed (rad/s)


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CNR – IMAMOTERInstitute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines of the Italian National Research CouncilFerraraItaly

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