Effect of shielding gas composition on intergranular corrosion of stabilized ferritic stainless steel GMA welds

  • Demostenes Ferreira FilhoEmail author
  • Ruham Pablo Reis
  • Valtair Antonio Ferraresi
Technical Paper


The effect of shielding gas composition on intergranular corrosion of the fusion zone formed by bi-stabilized ferritic stainless steel plates (AISI 441) and ER430Ti and ER430LNb filler metals during gas metal arc welding was investigated. Double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation tests were conducted to examine the influence of the shielding gas content (Ar + 2%O2, Ar + 8%CO2 and Ar + 25%CO2) on intergranular corrosion of the ferritic stainless steel welds. It was possible to observe an increase in the tendency toward sensitization with the increase in the CO2 content in the shielding gas, especially with the ER430Ti filler metal. Analysis of the formed precipitates by means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy allowed to notice that high levels of CO2 blended in the shielding gas increase the intergranular precipitates and lead to significant intergranular corrosion, which was induced by the Cr-depletion zone formation, especially for the welds produced with the ER430Ti filler metal.


Intergranular corrosion GMAW Shielding gas Ferritic stainless steel Stabilized filler metal 



The authors acknowledge the financial support from CNPq, CAPES and FAPEMIG, the infrastructural support from Laprosolda/UFU, EMC/UFG, LabMic/UFG and LCMM-DEFIS/UFMA and, finally, thank ArcelorMittal Inox Brasil S/A for laboratorial analyses and for donating the base and filler metals.


  1. 1.
    Uenaka A, Nagata M, Uenaka A (1996) Development of ferritic stainless steel welding wire for automotive exhaust systems. Electr Furn Steel 67(3):155–160Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Inui K (2001) Development of the ferritic stainless steel welding wire for automotive exhaust systems. Denki-Seiko 72(3):155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Uenaka A, Yamada R (2007) Effects of chemical compositions of stainless steel welding wire for automotive exhaust system components on droplet transfer phenomenon. Denki-Seiko 78(2):107–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Inui K, Noda T, Shimizu T, Nagata M (2003) Development of the ferritic stainless steel welding wire providing fine grain microstructure weld metal for the components of automotive exhaust system. SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-0979Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Llewellyn DT (1994) Steels—Metallurgy and Applications. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., Oxford, pp 295–297Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Reddy GM, Mohandas T (2001) Explorative studies on grain refinement of ferritic stainless steel welds. J Mater Sci Lett 20:721–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Balmforth MC, Lippold JC (2000) A new ferritic-martensitic stainless steel constitution diagram. Weld J 79(12):339s–345sGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sato E, Tanoue T (1995) Present and future trends of materials for automotive exhaust system. Nippon Steel Technical Report No. 64, pp 13–19Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stenbacka N, Persson K (1987) Shielding gases for gas-metal arc welding of stainless steels, AGA AB Inovation, Suécia, 1992. Dillenbeck, CastagnoGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Strassburg FW (1976) Schweissen nichtrostender Stahle, DVS, vol 67. DCS Gmbh, DusselorfGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lundqvist B (1980) Aspects of gas-metal arc welding of stainless steels. Sandvik AB, Sandviken (in Swedish) Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ferreira Filho D, Ferraresi VA, Scotti A (2010) Shielding gas influence on the ferritic stainless steel weldability. Proc Inst Mech Eng. Part B, J Eng Manuf 224:951–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Madeira RP, Modenesi PJ (2010) The study of 430Ti and 430LNb ferritic welding wires for application in the cold part of automotive exhaust systems. Weld Int 24(6):412–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Davis JR (1994) Stainless steels (ASM specialty handbook). ASM International, Russell Township, p. 366Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kim JK, Kim YH, Lee JS, Kim KY (2010) Effect of chromium content on intergranular corrosion and precipitation of Ti-stabilized ferritic stainless steels. Corros Sci 52:1847–1852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kim JK, Kim YH, Lee BH, Kim KY (2011) New findings on intergranular corrosion mechanism of stabilized stainless steels. Electrochim Acta 56:1701–1710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kim JK, Kim YH, Uhmb SH, Lee JS, Kim KY (2009) Intergranular corrosion of Ti-stabilized 11 wt% Cr ferritic stainless steel for automotive exhaust systems. Corros Sci 51:2716–2723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kim JM, Lee HW (2014) Study for corrosion characteristics of ferritic stainless steel weld metal with respect to added contents of Ti and Nb. Met Mater Int 20(2):329–335MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Huang X, Wang D, Yang Y (2015) Effect of precipitation on intergranular corrosion resistance of 430 ferritic stainless steel. J Iron Steel Res Int 22(11):1062–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Scalise TC, Oliveira MCL, Sayeg IJ, Antunes RA (2014) Sensitization behavior of type 409 ferritic stainless steel: confronting DL-EPR test and practice W of ASTM A763. J Mater Eng Perform 23:2164–2173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lakshminarayanan AK, Balasubramanian V (2013) Use of DL-EPR test to assess sensitization resistance of AISI 409 M grade ferritic stainless steel joints. J Mater Eng Perform 22:2293–2303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tavares SSM et al (2017) Influence of heat treatments on the microstructure and degree of sensitization of base metal and weld of AISI 430 stainless steel. Matéria (Rio J) 22(1):e11939. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Suzuki M, Hamada S, Maziasz PJ, Jitsukawa S, Hishinuma A (1992) Compositional behavior and stability of MC-type precipitates in JPCA austenitic stainless steel during HFIR irradiation. J Nucl Mater 191–194(Pt. B):1351–1355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kuzucu V, Aksoy M, Korkut MH, Yildirim MM (1997) Mater Sci Eng, A 230:75–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universidade Federal do Goiás - UFG - EMCGoiâniaBrazil
  2. 2.Universidade Federal de Uberlândia - UFU - FEMECUberlândiaBrazil

Personalised recommendations