Turbofan engine performance optimization based on aircraft cruise thrust level

  • Valdi Freire da Fonseca FilhoEmail author
  • Raphael Felipe Gama Ribeiro
  • Pedro Teixeira Lacava
Technical Paper


The aim of this paper is to define a methodology to minimize the adjustment effort required to comply with aircraft design performance requirements, when commercial off-the-shelf turbofan engines are installed, which is a challenge to aircraft manufactures. In order to achieve an efficient operation, a reasonable proposal is to adapt the propulsive performance by turbofan engine optimization. This work is carried out according to the following steps: (i) creation of estimated performance curves for a gas turbine from limited data; (ii) analysis of the impacts on performance and propulsive integration, applying computer simulation of the most promising engine components configuration; and (iii) matching between the lowest specific fuel consumption and the net thrust required for the cruise flight phase of the aircraft. The technical feasibility and the possible predisposition of engine manufactures to perform the implementation were also considered as critical points in this procedure. As a final result, an evaluation that presents the most suitable turbofan engine component modifications proposal to comply with engine/aircraft performance integration to be applied in the conceptual design phase was obtained.


Turbofan Aircraft engine performance Performance optimization Aircraft propulsion 

List of symbols


Aspect ratio


Bypass ratio


Aircraft total drag coefficient


Zero lift drag coefficient, without engine nacelles effect


Induced drag coefficient


Wave drag coefficient


Excrescence drag coefficient


Engine-related drag coefficient


Skin friction coefficient


Aircraft lift coefficient


Ceramic matrix composites


Direct maintenance cost


Environmental control system


Entry into service


Efficiency of component i


Oswald factor


Net thrust required


Fan pressure ratio


High-pressure compressor


High-pressure turbine


Integrated drive generator


Inner fan pressure ratio


Intermediate-pressure compressor


Intermediate-pressure compressor ratio


International Standard Atmosphere


Airfoil technology factor


Low-pressure turbine


Mach number


Critical Mach number


Drag divergence Mach number


Corrected speed


Nozzle guide vane


Outer fan pressure ratio


Overall pressure ratio


Aircraft equivalent parasite area


Wing reference area


Specific fuel consumption

\(\left( {\frac{t}{c}} \right)\)

Wing airfoil relative thickness


Turbine entry temperature


Top of climb


Maximum engine inlet mass flow at sea-level standard S ISA conditions


Turbine NGV cooling air flow ratio


Turbine rotor blade cooling air flow ratio


Wing quarter chord sweep angle


  1. 1.
    Lee J (2000) Historical and future trends in aircraft performance, costs, and emissions. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ribeiro RG (2013) A comparative study of turbofan engines bypass ratio. Dissertation, Aeronautical Institute of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Henriksson M, Grönstedt T, Breitholtz C (2011) Model-based on-board turbofan thrust estimation. Control Eng Pract. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kobayashi T, Simon DL (2005) Hybrid neural-network genetic-algorithm technique for aircraft engine performance diagnostics. J Propul Power 21:751–758. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Homaifar A, Lai HY, McCormick E (1994) System optimization of turbofan engines using genetic algorithms. Appl Math Model 18:72–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mathioudaki A, Kamboukos P, Stamatis A (2002) Turbofan performance deterioration tracking using nonlinear models and optimization techniques. J Turbomach ASME 124:580–587. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dirk A, Bitén N, Zaccaria V, Aslanidou I, Kyprianidis KG (2017) Conceptual design of a 3-shaft turbofan engine with reduced fuel consumption for 2025. In: 9th International conference on applied energy—Elsevier Energy Procedia, vol 142, pp 1728–1735Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Celestina ML, Fabian JC, Kulkarni S (2012) NASA environmentally responsible aviation high overall pressure ratio compressor research—pre-test CFD. In: 48th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE joint propulsion conference & exhibitGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Uysal SC, Liese E, Nix AC, Black J (2018) A thermodynamic model to quantify the impact of cooling improvements on gas turbine efficiency. J Turbomach ASME 140:031007-1–031007-11. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mattingly JD (2006) Elements of propulsion: gas turbines and rockets. AIAA, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mattingly J, Heiser H, Pratt T (2002) Aircraft engine design. AIAA, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fletcher PP, Walsh P (1998) Gas turbine performance. Blackwell Science, BristolGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lan CTEL, Roskam J (1997) Airplane aerodynamics and performance. DARcorporation, KansasGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mason WH (2006) Configurations aerodynamics: transonic aerodynamics of airfoils and wings. Virginia Tech. Blacksburg, VA. Publishing Web. Accessed 18 Dec 2018
  15. 15.
    Raymer DP (1992) Aircraft design: a conceptual approach. AIAA Education Series, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kurzke J (2005) How to create a performance model of a gas turbine from a limited amount of information. ASME, Reno-Tahoe, NevadaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    AIRBUS (2005) A330 aircraft characteristics airport and maintenance planning, FranceGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Aircraft families A330-300. AIRBUS Publishing Web. Accessed 15 May 2015
  19. 19.
    Ciornei S (2005) Mach number, relative thickness, sweep and lift coefficient of the wing: an empirical investigation of parameters and equations. Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Torenbeek E (1976) Synthesis of subsonic airplane design. Delft University Press, DelftGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    AIRBUS (2008) A330-200 & -300, AIRCRAFT COMMERCE – Owner’s & Operator’s Guide, Issue No.57. Accessed 20 Feb 2015
  22. 22.
    Model CF6-80E1 Engine overview. GE AVIATION Publishing Web. Accessed 21 May 2015
  23. 23.
    EUROPEAN AVIATION SAFETY AGENCY - EASA (2011) CF6-80E1 Engine Type Certificate Data Sheet.–80E1_Series_engines-02-25102011.pdf. Accessed 21 May 2015
  24. 24.
    Kurzke J (2012) GASTURB gas turbine performance—Software Package Ver. 12.0, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kurzke J. Gasturb 12—Design and off-design performance of gas turbine engines. Institute of Jet Propulsion and Turbomachinery, Aachen. Accessed 15 Jun. 2015
  26. 26.
    SOCIETY OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS (2009) ARP 755D: aircraft propulsion system performance station designation and nomenclature, Warrendale, PAGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kurzke J. Achieving maximum thermal efficiency with the simple gas turbine cycle. MTU Aero Engines, München. Accessed 15 Mar. 2013
  28. 28.
    Mcintire WL, Beam PE (1972) Engine and airplane—will it be a happy marriage? In: Proceedings of the annual conference of the society of aeronautical engineers, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    GE Global Research “Ceramic Matrix Composites Improve Engine Efficiency,” GE Publishing Web Accessed 20 May 2015
  30. 30.
    Covert EE, James CR, Kimzey WF, Richey GK, Rooney EC (1985) Thrust and drag: its prediction and verification. In: Progress in astronautics and aeronautics—AIAA, 98Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ciepluch CC, Davis DY, Gray DE (1987) Results of NASA’s energy efficient engine program. J Propuls AIAA 3:560–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    F-Chart Software (2005) EES engineering equation solver, Software Package, Ver. 7.359, Madison WIGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kurzke J (2009) Fundamental differences between conventional and geared turbofans. In: Proceedings of the ASME turbo expo: power for land, sea and airGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Embraer S.A.São José dos CamposBrazil
  2. 2.Propulsion DepartmentInstituto Tecnológico de AeronáuticaSão José dos CamposBrazil

Personalised recommendations