Liquid/surface interaction during pool boiling of DI-water on nanocoated heating surfaces

  • R. R. Souza
  • L. L. Manetti
  • I. S. Kiyomura
  • E. M. CardosoEmail author
Technical Paper


This study focuses on the effect of the nanostructured heating surface on the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) considering the nanofluid concentration used for coating surfaces and the heating surface morphology. Copper blocks with roughness values of Ra = 0.05 μm (smooth surface) and Ra = 0.23 μm (rough surface) were used as heating surfaces, and deionized water (DI-water) at atmospheric pressure and saturation temperature was used as the working fluid. Nanostructured surfaces were obtained by boiling process of Al2O3–DI-water-based nanofluid for different volumetric concentrations 0.0007 vol% and 0.007 vol% (corresponding to low and high nanofluid concentration, respectively) to analyze the interaction between the heating surface and the working fluid. With this purpose, six different copper surfaces were submitted to metallographic, roughness, wettability, and thermal image analysis. The experimental results showed that the enhancement or deterioration of boiling heat transfer is strongly affected by the nanofluid concentration—used to nanocoat the heating surface—and the original heating surface morphology. The nanocoating process increases the surface roughness and changes the surface wettability. Moreover, as the nanofluid concentration increases, the wettability and nanolayer thickness also increase. The wall temperature distribution, obtained by thermal image analysis, agrees with the HTC behavior. For the coated rough surfaces, it is observed deterioration of the HTC regardless of nanofluid concentration. The increase in the surface temperature and the consequent degradation of the HTC are more pronounced for higher nanoparticle concentrations.


Pool boiling heat transfer Nanostructured surface Wettability Thermographic analysis 

List of symbols


Critical heat flux


Scanning electron microscopy


Heat transfer coefficient


Smooth surface


Rough surface


Heat transfer coefficient (kW/m2 K)


Distance between thermocouples (m)


Atmospheric pressure (kPa)


Heat flux (kW/m2)


Average surface roughness (μm)


Thermocouples temperature at positions 1, 2, and 3 (K)


Saturation temperature of the fluid (K)


Surface temperature (K)


Uncertainty (–)


Distance of thermocouples from heating surface (m)


Difference in temperature (K)


Static contact angle (°)



Location of thermocouple 1


Location of thermocouple 2


Location of thermocouple 3


Surface wall



The authors are grateful for the financial support from the PPGEM—UNESP/FEIS, from CAPES, from the National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development of Brazil (CNPq Grant No. 458702/2014-5), and from FAPESP (Grant No. 2013/15431-7; 2017/13813-0). The authors also extend their gratitude to Prof. Dr. Gherhardt Ribastki from Heat Transfer Research Group, Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos (EESC)/University of São Paulo, for supplying the alumina nanoparticles.


  1. 1.
    Moita AS, Teodori E, Moreira ALN (2015) Influence of surface topography in the boiling mechanisms. Int J Heat Fluid Flow 52:50–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    O’Hanley H, Coyle C, Buongiorno J, McKrell T, Hu L-W, Rubner M, Cohen R (2013) Separate effects of surface roughness, wettability, and porosity on the boiling critical heat flux. Appl Phys Lett 103:024102-1Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Forrest E, Williamson E, Buongiorno J, Hu L, Rubner M, Cohen R (2010) Augmentation of nucleate boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux using nanoparticle thin-film coatings. Int J Heat Mass Transf 1–3:58–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Heitich LV, Passos JC, Cardoso EM, Da Silva MF, Klein AN (2014) Nucleate boiling of water using nanostructured surface. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng 36:181–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Narayan GP, Anoop KB, Das SK (2007) Mechanism of enhancement/deterioration of boiling heat transfer using stable nanoparticle suspensions over vertical tubes. J Appl Phys 102:074317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Souza RR, Passos JC, Cardoso EM (2014) Influence of nanoparticle size and gap size on nucleate boiling using HFE7100. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 59:195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Park SD, Moon SB, Bang IC (2014) Effects of thickness of boiling-induced nanoparticle deposition on the saturation of critical heat flux enhancement. Int J Heat Mass Transf 78:506–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhao Z, Zhang J, Jia D, Zhao K, Zhang X, Jiang P (2017) Thermal performance analysis of pool boiling on an enhanced surface modified by the combination of microstructures and wetting properties. Appl Therm Eng 117:417–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Li YY, Liu ZH, Zheng BC (2015) Experimental study on the saturated pool boiling heat transfer on nano-scale modification surface. Int J Heat Mass Transf 84:550–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kiyomura IS, Manetti LL, da Cunha AP, Ribatski G, Cardoso EM (2017) An analysis of the effects of nanoparticles deposition on characteristics of the heating surface and ON pool boiling of water. Int J Heat Mass Transf 106:666–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dong L, Quan X, Cheng P (2014) An experimental investigation of enhanced pool boiling heat transfer from surfaces with micro/nano-structures. Int J Heat Mass Transf 71:189–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Das S, Kumar DS, Bhaumik S (2016) Experimental study of nucleate pool boiling heat transfer of water on silicon oxide nanoparticle coated copper heating surface. Appl Therm Eng 96:555–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sarafraz MM, Hormozi F, Peyghambarzadeh SM (2016) Pool boiling heat transfer to aqueous alumina nano-fluids on the plain and concentric circular micro-structured (CCM) surfaces. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 72:125–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Phan HT, Caney N, Marty P, Colasson S, Gavillet J (2009) How does surface wettability influence nucleate boiling? C. R. Mecanique 337:251–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Salimpour MR, Abdollahi A, Afrand M (2017) An experimental study on deposited surfaces due to nanofluid pool boiling: comparison between rough and smooth surfaces. Exp Therm Fluid Sci. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Teodori, E, Pontes P, Moita AS, Moreira ALN, Georgoulas A, Marengo M (2017) Experimental and numerical study on sensible heat transfer at droplet/wall interactions. In: ILASS–Europe 2017, 28th conference on liquid atomization and spray systems, 6–8 September 2017, ValenciaGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yang SR, Kim RH (1988) A mathematical-model of the pool boiling nucleation site density in terms of the surface characteristics. Int J Heat Mass Transf 31:1127–1135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kang M-G (2000) Effect of surface roughness on pool boiling heat transfer. Int J Heat Mass Transf 43:4073–4085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Luke A (2003) Thermo and fluid dynamics in boiling, connection between surface roughness, bubble formation and heat transfer. In: 5th international boiling heat transfer conference, Montego Bay, Jamaica, 4–8 May 2003Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jones BJ, McHale JP, Garimella S (2009) The influence of surface roughness on nucleate pool boiling heat transfer. Birck and NCN Publications. Paper 480Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang CH, Dhir VK (1993) Effect of surface wettability on active nucleation site density during pool boiling of water on a vertical surface. ASME J Heat Transf 115:659–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Phan HT, Caney N, Marty P, Colasson S, Gavillet J (2009) Surface wettability control by nanocoating: the effects on pool boiling heat transfer and nucleation mechanism. Int J Heat Mass Transf 52:5459–5471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Benjamin RJ, Balakrishnan AR (1997) Nucleation site density in pool boiling of saturated pure liquids: effect of surface microroughness and surface and liquid physical properties. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 15:32–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Basu N, Warrier GR, Dhir VK (2002) Onset of nucleate boiling and active nucleation site density during subcooled flow boiling. ASME J Heat Transf 124:717–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Manetti LL, Stephen MT, Beck PA, Cardoso EM (2017) Evaluation of the heat transfer enhancement during pool boiling using low concentrations of Al2O3–water based nanofluid. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 87:191–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fluke Corporation (2009) Technical data: Ti25, Ti10 and Ti9 thermal imagersGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bureau International des poids et Mesures; Organisation Internationale de Normalisation (2008) Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement. International Organization for StandardizationGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cunha AP, Mogaji TS, Cardoso EM (2017) A method for measuring contact angle and for analyzing the surface wettability, In: 9th world conference on experimental heat transfer, fluid mechanics and thermodynamics, 11–15 June, 2017, Iguazu Falls, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rohsenow WM (1962) A method of correlating heat transfer data for surface boiling of liquids. Trans ASME J Heat Transf 74:969–976Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chien LH, Webb RL (1998) Measurement of bubble dynamics on an enhanced boiling surface. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 16(3):177–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. R. Souza
    • 1
  • L. L. Manetti
    • 1
  • I. S. Kiyomura
    • 1
  • E. M. Cardoso
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Post-Graduation Program in Mechanical EngineeringUNESP – São Paulo State UniversityIlha SolteiraBrazil

Personalised recommendations