Analysis and dynamic calibration of the transient of an SI-engine equipped with turbocharger

  • Mehdi KeshavarzEmail author
  • Amir-Hasan Kakaee
  • Hamidreza Fajri
Technical Paper


Transient is considered an important operation mode of an engine since most of its working cycles happen in this mode. In this paper, GT-Power software is used to model the engine and the turbocharger; moreover, the experimental results from the IPCO Company are used for validation and calibration. The simulation is calibrated for the engine’s steady state in the part- and full-load conditions. Then, since the transient simulation cannot be performed based on the steady-state settings, the engine transient simulation is calibrated. Upon the performed simulation, the calibration differences of the transient and the steady state are investigated. These differences are analyzed during four processes of combustion, injection, heat transfer in the exhaust manifold and the turbocharger performance; then the various parameters’ effect on the engine transient are studied. The considered transient is the one during which the engine load increases with the throttle opening at a constant engine speed. It is concluded that the produced maps of the combustion and injection parameters, which are achieved from the quasi-steady conditions, can properly predict these parameters’ behavior. However, the turbocharger performance and the heat transfer inside the exhaust manifold must be calibrated, transiently. With this procedure for model calibration, the error between the model and the experimental results were decreased significantly. For example, in the speed of 1900 rpm, the error between the model and the experimental data for transient simulation is reduced from 1.57 to 0.18%. The studied engine is 1.65 L EF7-TC which is a spark ignition engine equipped with a turbocharger.


Spark ignition engine Turbocharger Transient response Dynamic calibration PSO algorithm 

List of symbols


After top dead center


Brake mean effective pressure (bar)


Crank angle degree


50% Burned fuel point (°)


Heat transfer multiplier


Indicated mean effective pressure (bar)


Iran Khodro Powertrain Company


Mean value engine model


Particle swarm optimization




Spark ignition


Steady state


Turbine efficiency multiplier




Variable geometery turbin


Variable valve timing


Variable nozzle turbine




Wastegate effective diameter (mm)


Wide open throttle


1/Equivalence ratio


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Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehdi Keshavarz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Amir-Hasan Kakaee
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Hamidreza Fajri
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khomeinishahr BranchIslamic Azad UniversityKhomeinishahrIran
  2. 2.School of Automotive EngineeringIran University of Science and TechnologyTehranIran
  3. 3.Iran Khodro Powertrain Co. (IPCO)TehranIran

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