Machining of fluidic channels on borosilicate glass using grinding-aided electrochemical discharge engraving (G-ECDE) and process optimization
- 192 Downloads
Electrochemical discharge machining (ECDM) has already been identified as a novel process for machining advanced ceramics and glass. The major limitations of this process are high overcut of the machined channels and the difficulty in controlling the roughness of the channel. This paper presents a novel technique which uses diamond-impregnated engraving tool as the tool electrode for machining accurate and smooth channels on borosilicate glass using ECDM. This technique can be called as grinding-aided electrochemical discharge engraving (G-ECDE). The new method utilizes both the grinding action of diamond grits and the thermal and chemical effects of ECDM for material removal. Preliminary experiments are performed using Placket–Burman design with center points to study the effect of machining parameters like voltage, electrolyte concentration, pulse-on time, tool rotational speed and tool feed rate on channel overcut and surface roughness of the channel. With the significant factors identified from the preliminary experiment, the main experiment was performed using a widely used response surface design called Box–Behnken design to develop second-order response models for surface roughness and channel overcut. Response surface plots are used to identify the effect of parameters and their interactions on the responses. Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) is used to optimize this multi-response problem. The optimum factor levels obtained from TOPSIS are a medium feed of 2 mm/min, a low voltage of 80 V, a medium pulse-on time of 0.0011 s and a low concentration of 2 M which produced channels with a surface roughness of 0.872 μm and overcut of 0.293 mm. From the microscopic images of machined channels, material removal mechanisms of G-ECDE are confirmed to be a combination of thermal melting due to electrochemical discharges, grinding action of diamond grits and high-temperature chemical etching action of the electrolyte. The performance of G-ECDE is compared with die-sinking ECDM and electrochemical discharge milling for producing channels and found that G-ECDE is the most suitable process to produce fluidic channel on glass which is free from recast layer and heat-affected zone. The results obtained from this study proved the potential of G-ECDE in producing smooth, accurate and complex fluidic channels on the glass.
KeywordsGrinding-aided electrochemical discharge engraving Placket–Burman design Box–Behnken design TOPSIS Response surface Fluidic channels Die-sinking ECDM Electrochemical discharge milling
The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by Kerala State Council for Science Technology and Environment (KSCSTE) under Technology Development and Adaptation Programme (TDAP) for the project titled “Development of a Hybrid Electrochemical Discharge Machine and its Performance Analysis” (Grant No. 935/2015/KSCSTE).
- 6.Kudla L (2009) Investigation into electrochemical discharge machining of microholes. J Autom Mob Robot Intell Syst 3:21–24Google Scholar
- 15.Wuthrich R, Fascio V, Didier V, Langen H (1999) In situ measurement and micromachining of glass. In: International symposium on micromechatronics and human science (MHS'99)Google Scholar
- 22.Pratyush S, Yang J-B (1998) Multiple criteria decision support in engineering design. Springer, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 23.Nayak BB, Mahapatra SS (2013) Multi-response optimization of WEDM Process Parameters using the AHP and TOPSIS method. Int J Theor Appl Res Mech Eng 2(3):109–115Google Scholar
- 24.Santhanam SKV, Rathinaraj L, Chandran R, Ramaiyan S (2015) Multi response optimization of submerged friction stir welding process parameters using topsis approach. In: Proceedings of the ASME 2015 international mechanical engineering congress and exposition (IMECE2015), Houston, Texas, pp 1–6Google Scholar
- 27.Paneerselvam R (2012) Design and analysis of experiments, 1st edn. PHI Learning Private Limited, Delhi, pp 22–27Google Scholar
- 28.Krishnaiah K, Shahabudeen P (2012) applied design of experiments and taguchi methods, 2nd edn. PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi, pp 169–184Google Scholar
- 29.What is a Pareto chart of effects?. Retrieved 31 July 2017. http://support.minitab.com/en-us/minitab/17/topic-library/modeling-statistics/doe/factorial-design-plots/what-is-a-pareto-chart-of-effects
- 30.Mathews Paul (2010) Design of experiments with minitab. New Age International (P) Limited Publishers, Chennai, pp 145–189Google Scholar
- 32.Rao RV (2013) Decision making in the manufacturing environment using graph theory and fuzzy multiple attribute decision making methods. Springer Ser Adv Manuf 2:10–12Google Scholar
- 36.Ladeesh VG, Manu R (2016) Development of fluidic channels using die sinking electrochemical discharge machining—a performance study and mathematical modelling. In: Proceedings of the 6th international and 27th all India manufacturing technology, design and research conference (AIMTDR-2016). College of Engineering Pune, India, pp 505–510Google Scholar