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Nanofluids for heat transfer applications: a review

  • Tiago Augusto Moreira
  • Debora Carneiro MoreiraEmail author
  • Gherhardt Ribatski
Review

Abstract

Since diluted suspensions of nanoparticles were first called nanofluids and presented as viable solutions for heat transfer applications, this subject has received much attention and related investigations have expanded to many paths. In order to comprehend how nanoscale-related effects could influence the macroscopic transport behavior of nanofluids under single or phase-change conditions, researchers have studied, for example, the stability of these solutions, variation of thermal and rheological properties, and the convective heat transfer behavior of a great variety of nanofillers in common fluids, mainly water. The deposition of nanofillers over heated surfaces has also been investigated due to the role of surface nanostructuring in modifying wettability, thermal resistance, and delaying the occurrence of critical heat flux. Despite the considerable number of publications regarding nanofluids, scattered results for transport properties or convective behavior of nanofluids under similar experimental conditions are often found, which hinders their applications due to a lack of comprehension on the mechanisms related to the behavior of these fluids and, consequently, to the difficulty in predicting it. In this context, this work concerns a review about the heat transfer behavior of nanofluids under single-phase flow, pool boiling, and flow boiling conditions. In general, there is a consensus that the heat transfer coefficient of single-phase flow is enhanced by the addition of nanoparticles to base fluids, although overall benefits of their application cannot be assured due to increases in viscosity. In contrast, either increase or decrease in heat transfer coefficient could be observed for pool and flow boiling conditions. Such behavior can be attributed to surface modifications due to interactions between the bare surface texture and the deposited nanoparticles; however, information on the surface texture is commonly missing in most works. Finally, the main mechanisms reported in the literature pointed out as responsible for the heat transfer coefficient behaviors are summarized, where it can be seen that modifications of transport properties and particles movements impact single-phase flow, while phase-change heat transfer is also influenced by variations of surface characteristics.

Keywords

Nanofluid Convection Boiling Transport properties Phase change 

List of symbols

cp

Specific heat [J/(kg K)]

d

Channel diameter (m)

dp

Particle diameter (m)

g

Gravity acceleration (m/s2)

G

Mass velocity [kg/(m2 s)]

h

Heat transfer coefficient [W/(m2 K)]

k

Thermal conductivity [W/(m K)]

n

Configuration factor

p

Pressure (kPa)

q

Heat flux (kW/m2)

rc

Critical radius (m)

rnp

Particle radius (m)

Rbd

Interfacial thermal resistance (K/W)

T

Temperature (°C)

v

Sedimentation velocity (m/s)

V

Flow velocity (m/s)

x

Vapor quality

Greek symbols

α

Thermal conductivity ratio

ϕ

Particles volume fraction

ϕm

Particles mass fraction

λ

Minimum spacing between particles (m)

ρ

Density (kg/m3)

σ

Surface tension (N/m)

ψ

Sphericity

Subscripts

bf

Base fluid

in

Inlet

nf

Nanofluid

np

Nanoparticle

Abbreviations

CHF

Critical heat flux

HTC

Heat transfer coefficient

PVA

Polyvinyl acetate

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level Personal, Brazil) through the NANOBIOTEC research program, CNPq (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, Brazil) under Contract Numbers 303852/2013-5, 404437/2015-0 and 131082/2015-9. The authors also acknowledge the FAPESP (São Paulo State Research Foundation, Brazil) for the scholarships under Contract Numbers 2016/16849-3, and 2015/24834-3 and the research Grant 2016/09509-1.

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Copyright information

© The Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Heat Transfer Research Group, São Carlos School of EngineeringUniversity of São PauloSão CarlosBrazil

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