Advertisement

Current Addiction Reports

, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 1–14 | Cite as

Dissociation in Problematic Gaming: a Systematic Review

  • Fanny GuglielmucciEmail author
  • Massimiliano Monti
  • Isabella G. Franzoi
  • Gianluca Santoro
  • Antonella Granieri
  • Joel Billieux
  • Adriano SchimmentiEmail author
Dissociation and Addictive Behaviors (J Billieux and A Schimmenti, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Dissociation and Addictive Behaviors

Abstract

Purpose of Review

The present article consists of a systematic review of recent (2007–2018) empirical studies addressing the relationship between problematic gaming and dissociation. Nineteen peer-reviewed empirical studies that examined the relationship between problematic gaming and dissociation were identified.

Recent Findings

The findings suggest that excessive video game use is linked to a variety of dissociative phenomena (e.g. depersonalisation experiences, escapism, psychotic-like experiences, game transfer phenomena).

Summary

Dissociative experiences are associated with problematic gaming. The findings support the hypothesis that problematic video game use can represent a maladaptive coping strategy on which people can rely to escape from disturbing mental states, adverse emotions or real-life problems. In these circumstances, dissociative symptoms might represent the side effects of an alteration in consciousness that is generated by excessive video game use. However, further research (especially experimental and longitudinal) is required in order to establish a potential causal link between problematic gaming patterns and dissociation.

Keywords

Problematic gaming Gaming disorder Dissociation Depersonalisation Escapism Psychotic-like experiences Game transfer phenomena 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. This article has been edited by Editor-in-Chief Marc Potenza instead of Joël Billieux and Adriano Schimmenti, as Joël Billieux and Adriano Schimmenti are the Section Editors of the “Dissociation and Addictive Behaviors” topical collection.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Greenfield D. The addictive properties of Internet usage. In: Young KS, de Abreu CN, editors. Internet addiction: a handbook and guide to evaluation and treatment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011. p. 135–53.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mérelle SYM, Kleiboer A, Schotanus M, et al. Which health-related problems are associated with problematic video-gaming or social media use in adolescents? Clin Neuropsychiatry. 2017;14(1):11–9.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Morahan-Martin J, Schumacher P. Incidence and correlates of pathological Internet use among college students. Comput Hum Behav. 2000;16(1):13–29.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0747-5632(99)00049-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shapira NA, Goldsmith TD, Keck PE, Khosla UM, McElroy SL. Psychiatric features of individuals with problematic internet use. J Affect Disord. 2000;57(1):267–72.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0327(99)00107-X.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Carli V, Durkee T, Wasserman D, et al. The association between pathological internet use and comorbid psychopathology: a systematic review. Psychopathology. 2013;46(1):1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000337971.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kuss DJ, Griffiths MD, Pontes HM. Chaos and confusion in DSM-5 diagnosis of internet gaming disorder: issues, concerns, and recommendations for clarity in the field. J Behav Addict. 2017;6(2):103–9.  https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.5.2016.062.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kardefelt-Winther D. A conceptual and methodological critique of internet addiction research: towards a model of compensatory internet use. Comput Hum Behav. 2014;31:351–4.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.10.059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kardefelt-Winther D. Meeting the unique challenges of assessing internet gaming disorder. Addiction. 2014;109(9):1568–70.  https://doi.org/10.1111/add.12645.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kardefelt-Winther D. A critical account of DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder. Addiction Res Theory. 2015;23(2):93–8.  https://doi.org/10.3109/16066359.2014.935350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Van Rooij AJ, Van Looy J, Billieux J. Internet gaming disorder as a formative construct: implications for conceptualization and measurement. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2017;71(7):445–58.  https://doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12404.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Aarseth E, Bean AM, Boonen H, et al. Scholars’ open debate paper on the World Health Organization ICD-11 gaming disorder proposal. J Behav Addict. 2017;6(3):267–70.  https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.5.2016.088.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Billieux J, Schimmenti A, Khazaal Y, Maurage P, Heeren A. Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research. J Behav Addict. 2015;4(3):119–23.  https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.4.2015.009.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    James RJ, Tunney RJ. The need for a behavioural analysis of behavioural addictions. Clin Psychol Rev. 2017;52:69–76.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2016.11.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Billieux J, Philippot P, Schmid C, Maurage P, De Mol J, Van der Linden M. Is dysfunctional use of the mobile phone a behavioural addiction? Confronting symptom-based versus process-based approaches. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2015;22(5):460–8.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.1910.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Deleuze J, Long J, Liu TQ, Maurage P, Billieux J. Passion or addiction? Correlates of healthy versus problematic use of videogames in a sample of French-speaking regular gamers. Addict Behav. 2018;82:114–21.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.02.031.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kardefelt-Winther D. Conceptualizing Internet use disorders: addiction or coping process? Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2017;71(7):459–66.  https://doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12413.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kardefelt-Winther D, Heeren A, Schimmenti A, et al. How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours? Addiction. 2017;112(10):1709–15.  https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13763.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wéry A, Schimmenti A, Karila L, Billieux J. Where the mind cannot dare: a case of addictive use of online pornography and its relationship with childhood trauma. J Sex Marital Ther. 2018.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0092623X.2018.1488324.
  20. 20.
    World Health Organization [WHO]. Mental, behavioural or neurodevelopmental disorders. In: ICD-11 beta draft—mortality and morbidity statistics;. 2018. https://icd.who.int/dev11/l-m/en#/http%3a%2f%2fid.who.int%2ficd%2fentity%2f334423054. Accessed 31 Oct 2018.
  21. 21.
    Billieux J, King DL, Higuchi S, et al. Functional impairment matters in the screening and diagnosis of gaming disorder. Commentary on: scholars’ open debate paper on the World Health Organization ICD-11 gaming disorder proposal (Aarseth et al.). J Behav Addict. 2017;6(3):285–9.  https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.6.2017.036.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ferguson CJ, Coulson M, Barnett J. A meta-analysis of pathological gaming prevalence and comorbidity with mental health, academic and social problems. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45(12):1573–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2011.09.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kuss DJ, Griffiths MD. Internet and gaming addiction: a systematic literature review of neuroimaging studies. Brain Sci. 2012;2(3):347–74.  https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci2030347.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Männikkö N, Ruotsalainen H, Miettunen J, Pontes HM, Kääriäinen M. Problematic gaming behaviour and health-related outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Health Psychol. 2017.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105317740414.
  25. 25.
    Mentzoni RA, Brunborg GS, Molde H, et al. Problematic video game use: estimated prevalence and associations with mental and physical health. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2011;14(10):591–6.  https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2010.0260.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Van Rooij AJ, Schoenmakers TM, Vermulst AA, Van Den Eijnden RJJM, Van De Mheen D. Online video game addiction: identification of addicted adolescent gamers. Addiction. 2011;106(1):205–12.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03104.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Allison SE, von Wahlde L, Shockley T, Gabbard GO. The development of the self in the era of the Internet and role-playing fantasy games. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163(3):381–5.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.163.3.381.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ko CH, Yen JY, Chen SH, Wang PW, Chen CS, Yen CF. Evaluation of the diagnostic criteria of Internet gaming disorder in the DSM-5 among young adults in Taiwan. J Psychiatr Res. 2014;53:103–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.02.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Griffiths MD, Davies MNO, Chappell D. Demographic factors and playing variables in online computer gaming. CyberPsychol Behav. 2004;7(4):479–87.  https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2004.7.479.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    King DL, Delfabbro P. Understanding and assisting excessive players of video games: a community psychology perspective. Aust Comm Psychol. 2009;21(1):62–74.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Peng W, Liu M. Online gaming dependency: a preliminary study in China. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2010;13(3):329–33.  https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2009.0082.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yee N. The demographics, motivations, and derived experiences of users of massively multi-user online graphical environments. Presence. 2006;15(3):309–29.  https://doi.org/10.1162/pres.15.3.309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Batthyány D, Müller KW, Benker F, Wölfling K. Computer game playing: clinical characteristics of dependence and abuse among adolescents. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2009;121(15–16):502–9.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00508-009-1198-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bartle RA. Designing virtual worlds. New Riders Publishing: United States of America; 2004.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yee N. Motivations for play in online games. CyberPsychol Behav. 2006;9(6):772–5.  https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2006.9.772.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Horen SA, Leichner PP, Lawson JS. Prevalence of dissociative symptoms and disorders in an adult psychiatric inpatient population in Canada. Can J Psychiatr. 1995;40(4):185–91.  https://doi.org/10.1177/070674379504000405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Spitzer C, Barnow S, Freyberger HJ, Grabe HJ. Dissociation predicts symptom-related treatment outcome in short-term inpatient psychotherapy. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2007;41:682–7.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00048670701449146.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Schimmenti A. The trauma factor: examining the relationships among different types of trauma, dissociation, and psychopathology. J Trauma Dissociation. 2018;19(5):552–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lyssenko L, Schmahl C, Bockhacker L, Vonderlin R, Bohus M, Kleindienst N. Dissociation in psychiatric disorders: a meta-analysis of studies using the dissociative experiences scale. Am J Psychiatry. 2018;175(1):37–46.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.17010025.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Deleuze J, Maurage P, Schimmenti A, Nuyens F, Melzer A, Billieux J. Escaping reality through videogames is linked to an implicit preference for virtual over real-life stimuli. J Affect Disord. 2019;245:1024–31.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.11.078.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Schimmenti A, Caretti V. Psychic retreats or psychic pits?: unbearable states of mind and technological addiction. Psychoanal Psychol. 2010;27(2):115–32.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Turkle S. Life on the screen: identity in the age of the internet. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster; 1995.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cooper A, Scherer CR, Boies SC, Gordon BL. Sexuality on the Internet: from sexual exploration to pathological expression. Prof Psychol Res Pract. 1999;30(2):154–64.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.30.2.154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Schimmenti A, Caretti V. Video-terminal dissociative trance: toward a psychodynamic understanding of problematic internet use. Clin Neuropsychiatry. 2017;14(1):64–72.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Schimmenti A. Unveiling the hidden self: developmental trauma and pathological shame. Psychodyn Pract. 2017;18(2):195–211.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14753634.2012.664873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Schimmenti A, Passanisi A, Caretti V, et al. Traumatic experiences, alexithymia, and Internet addiction symptoms among late adolescents: a moderated mediation analysis. Addict Behav. 2017;64:314–20.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.11.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gervasi AM, La Marca L, Costanzo A, Pace U, Guglielmucci F, Schimmenti A. Personality and Internet gaming disorder: a systematic review of recent literature. Curr Addict Rep. 2017;4(3):293–307.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-017-0159-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, PRISMA group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 2009;6(7):e1000097.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Schimmenti A. Psychometric properties of the adolescent dissociative experiences scale in a sample of Italian adolescents. J Trauma Dissociation. 2016;17(2):244–57.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2015.1064507.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    • Schimmenti A, Guglielmucci F, Barbasio C, Granieri A. Attachment disorganization and dissociation in virtual worlds: a study on problematic Internet use among players of online role playing games. Clin Neuropsychiatry. 2012;9(5):195–202 The authors reported that dissociative experiences mediated the relationship between unresolved states of mind regarding attachment and scores on problematic Internet use in a sample of excessive gamers. Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    De Pasquale C, Dinaro C, Sciacca F. Relationship of Internet gaming disorder with dissociative experience in Italian university students. Ann General Psychiatry. 2018;17(1):28.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12991-018-0198-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Snodgrass JG, Lacy MG, Francois Dengah HF, Fagan J, Most DE. Magical flight and monstrous stress: technologies of absorption and mental wellness in Azeroth. Cult Med Psychiatry. 2011;35(1):26–62.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11013-010-9197-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Floros G, Siomos K, Stogiannidou A, Giouzepas I, Garyfallos G. Comorbidity of psychiatric disorders with Internet addiction in a clinical sample: the effect of personality, defense style and psychopathology. Addict Behav. 2014;39(12):1839–45.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.07.031.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Agarwal R, Karahanna E. Time flies when you're having fun: cognitive absorption and beliefs about information technology usage. MIS Q. 2000;24(4):665–94.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3250951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Barnes SJ, Pressey AD. Caught in the Web? Addictive behavior in cyberspace and the role of goal-orientation. Technol Forecast Soc Change. 2014;86:93–109.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2013.08.024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Laconi S, Pires S, Chabrol H. Internet gaming disorder, motives, game genres and psychopathology. Comput Hum Behav. 2017;75:652–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.06.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Männikkö N, Billieux J, Nordström T, Koivisto K, Kääriäinen M. Problematic gaming behaviour in Finnish adolescents and young adults: relation to game genres, gaming motives and self-awareness of problematic use. Int J Ment Heal Addict. 2017;15(2):324–38.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-016-9726-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Chang SM, Hsieh GM, Lin SS. The mediation effects of gaming motives between game involvement and problematic Internet use: escapism, advancement and socializing. Comput Educ. 2018;122:43–53.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    • Billieux J, Thorens G, Khazaal Y, Zullino D, Achab S, Van der Linden M. Problematic involvement in online games: a cluster analytic approach. Comput Hum Behav. 2015;43:242–50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.10.055 The authors showed that individuals using video games as a mean to escape from reality spent more time online and reported more negative affects than other gamers. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ballabio M, Griffiths MD, Urbán R, Quartiroli A, Demetrovics Z, Király O. Do gaming motives mediate between psychiatric symptoms and problematic gaming? An empirical survey study. Addict Res Theory. 2017;25(5):397–408.  https://doi.org/10.1080/16066359.2017.1305360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Billieux J, Van der Linden M, Achab S, et al. Why do you play World of Warcraft? An in-depth exploration of self-reported motivations to play online and in-game behaviours in the virtual world of Azeroth. Comput Hum Behav. 2013;29(1):103–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.07.021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    •• Király O, Urbán R, Griffiths MD, et al. The mediating effect of gaming motivation between psychiatric symptoms and problematic online gaming: an online survey. J Med Internet Res. 2015;17(4):e88.  https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.3515 In a large sample of 3,186 online gamers, the authors found that avoiding real-life problems (i.e., escapism) was significantly related to psychiatric symptoms and problematic gaming. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Caplan S, Williams D, Yee N. Problematic Internet use and psychosocial well-being among MMO players. Comput Hum Behav. 2009;25(6):1312–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2009.06.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Koo DM. The moderating role of locus of control on the links between experiential motives and intention to play online games. Comput Hum Behav. 2009;25(2):466–74.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2008.10.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Zsila Á, Orosz G, Bőthe B, et al. An empirical study on the motivations underlying augmented reality games: the case of Pokémon Go during and after Pokémon fever. Personal Individ Differ. 2018;133:56–66.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.06.024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bentall R. Madness explained: why we must reject the Kraepelinian paradigm and replace it with a ‘complaint-orientated’ approach to understanding mental illness. Med Hypotheses. 2006;66(2):220–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2005.09.026.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    • Vadlin S, Åslund C, Hellström C, Nilsson KW. Associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents in two samples. Addict Behav. 2016;61:8–15.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.05.001 The authors found that more than 10% of adolescent problematic gamers showed psychotic-like experiences in both clinical and community samples. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Guglielmucci F, Saroldi M, Zullo G, Munno D, Granieri A. Personality profiles and problematic Internet use: a study with a sample of Italian adolescents. Clin Neuropsychiatry. 2017;14(1):94–103.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Curtis AE. The claustrum: sequestration of cyberspace. Psychoanal Rev. 2007;94(1):99–139.  https://doi.org/10.1521/prev.2007.94.1.99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Toronto E. Time out of mind: dissociation in the virtual world. Psychoanal Psychol. 2009;26(2):117–33.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ortiz de Gortari AB. Targeting the real life impact of virtual interactions: the game transfer phenomenon: 42 video games players’ experiences (Master dissertation). Retrieved from Digitala Vetenskapliga Arkivet database. 2010;425850.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ortiz de Gortari AB, Griffiths MD. Automatic mental processes, automatic actions and behaviours in game transfer phenomena: an empirical self-report study using online forum data. Int J Ment Heal Addict. 2014;12(4):432–52.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-014-9476-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    • Ortiz de Gortari AB, Griffiths MD. Prevalence and characteristics of Game Transfer Phenomena: a descriptive survey study. Int J Hum Comput Interact. 2016;32(6):470–80.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10447318.2016.1164430 This large online survey on a sample of 2362 online gamers showed a high prevalence of bodily alterations related with Game Transfer Phenomena. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Charlton JP, Danforth ID. Distinguishing addiction and high engagement in the context of online game playing. Comput Hum Behav. 2007;23(3):1531–48.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2005.07.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Schimmenti A, Starcevic V, Gervasi AM, Deleuze J, Billieux J. Interference with processing negative stimuli in problematic Internet users: preliminary evidence from an emotional Stroop task. J Clin Med. 2018;7(7):177.  https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7070177.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Renard SB, Huntjens RJ, Lysaker PH, Moskowitz A, Aleman A, Pijnenborg GH. Unique and overlapping symptoms in schizophrenia spectrum and dissociative disorders in relation to models of psychopathology: a systematic review. Schizophr Bull. 2017;43(1):108–21.  https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbw063.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lemma A. An order of pure decision: growing up in a virtual world and the adolescent’s experience of the body. In: Psychoanalysis in the technoculture era: Routledge; 2013. p. 97–118.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0003065110385576.
  79. 79.
    Schimmenti A, Infanti A, Badoud D, Laloyaux J, Billieux J. Schizotypal personality traits and problematic use of massively-multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). Comput Hum Behav. 2017;74:286–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.04.048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Turkle S. Alone together: why we expect more from technology and less from each other. New York: Basic Books; 2011.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fanny Guglielmucci
    • 1
    Email author
  • Massimiliano Monti
    • 1
  • Isabella G. Franzoi
    • 1
  • Gianluca Santoro
    • 2
  • Antonella Granieri
    • 1
  • Joel Billieux
    • 3
  • Adriano Schimmenti
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of TurinTurinItaly
  2. 2.Faculty of Human and Social SciencesUKE—Kore University of EnnaEnnaItaly
  3. 3.Addictive and Compulsive Behaviours Lab, Institute for Health and BehaviourUniversity of LuxembourgEsch-sur-AlzetteLuxembourg

Personalised recommendations