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Current Addiction Reports

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 273–295 | Cite as

A Review of the Evidence for Considering Gambling Disorder (and Other Behavioral Addictions) as a Disorder Due to Addictive Behaviors in the ICD-11: a Focus on Case-Control Studies

  • Hyoun S. KimEmail author
  • David C. Hodgins
ICD-11 (D King, S Higuchi and V Poznyak, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on ICD-11

Abstract

Purpose of Review

To conduct a systematic review of recent case-control studies investigating the similarities and differences between gambling disorder (GD), substance use disorders (SUDs), and behavioral addictions (BAs).

Recent Findings

A total of 36 studies were identified for synthesis, with 56% comparing GD to SUDs, 36.11% comparing GD to other BAs, and 8.33% comparing to both. The results indicated that GD and SUDs/BAs do not present with overall differences in neurocognitive, clinical, and impulsivity dimensions. Rather, GD is associated with more nuanced differences in these dimensions. In contrast, GD was likely to present with significant differences in personality although with conflicting results in the directionality and dimensions of the personality trait compared to SUDs/BAs.

Summary

GD warrants classification as a disorder due to addictive behaviors. However, nuanced differences exist between GD and SUDs/BAs, which should be taken into account in the conceptualization of GD as an addiction.

Keywords

Gambling disorder Substance use disorder Behavioral addictions Neurological Personality Comorbidity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Alana Guidry and Ximena Garcia for their assistance in the preparation of the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

40429_2019_256_MOESM1_ESM.docx (14 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 12 kb)
40429_2019_256_MOESM2_ESM.docx (31 kb)
ESM 2 (30 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CalgaryN.W. CalgaryCanada

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