A Review of the Evidence for Considering Gambling Disorder (and Other Behavioral Addictions) as a Disorder Due to Addictive Behaviors in the ICD-11: a Focus on Case-Control Studies
Purpose of Review
To conduct a systematic review of recent case-control studies investigating the similarities and differences between gambling disorder (GD), substance use disorders (SUDs), and behavioral addictions (BAs).
A total of 36 studies were identified for synthesis, with 56% comparing GD to SUDs, 36.11% comparing GD to other BAs, and 8.33% comparing to both. The results indicated that GD and SUDs/BAs do not present with overall differences in neurocognitive, clinical, and impulsivity dimensions. Rather, GD is associated with more nuanced differences in these dimensions. In contrast, GD was likely to present with significant differences in personality although with conflicting results in the directionality and dimensions of the personality trait compared to SUDs/BAs.
GD warrants classification as a disorder due to addictive behaviors. However, nuanced differences exist between GD and SUDs/BAs, which should be taken into account in the conceptualization of GD as an addiction.
KeywordsGambling disorder Substance use disorder Behavioral addictions Neurological Personality Comorbidity
We are grateful to Alana Guidry and Ximena Garcia for their assistance in the preparation of the manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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