Current Addiction Reports

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 191–199 | Cite as

Tobacco Smoking, Eating Behaviors, and Body Weight: a Review

  • Ariana M. ChaoEmail author
  • Thomas A. Wadden
  • Rebecca L. Ashare
  • James Loughead
  • Heath D. Schmidt
Food Addiction (A Meule, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Food Addiction


Purpose of Review

This narrative review provides an overview of the relationships among tobacco smoking, eating behaviors, and body weight. The aims are to (1) examine the concurrent and longitudinal associations between tobacco smoking and body weight, (2) describe potential mechanisms underlying the relationships between smoking and body weight, with a focus on mechanisms related to eating behaviors and appetite, and (3) discuss management of concomitant tobacco smoking and obesity.

Recent Findings

Adolescents who smoke tobacco tend to have body mass indexes (BMI) the same as or higher than nonsmokers. However, adult tobacco smokers tend to have lower BMIs and unhealthier diets relative to nonsmokers. Smoking cessation is associated with a mean body weight gain of 4.67 kg after 12 months of abstinence, though there is substantial variability. An emerging literature suggests that metabolic factors known to regulate food intake (e.g., ghrelin, leptin) may also play an important role in smoking-related behaviors. While the neural mechanisms underlying tobacco smoking-induced weight gain remain unclear, brain imaging studies indicate that smoking and eating cues overlap in several brain regions associated with learning, memory, motivation, and reward. Behavioral and pharmacological treatments have shown short-term effects in limiting post-cessation weight gain; however, their longer-term efficacy is limited.


Further studies are needed to identify the exact mechanisms underlying smoking, eating behaviors, and body weight. Moreover, effective treatment options are needed to prevent long-term weight gain during smoking abstinence.


Cigarettes Obesity Nicotine Relapse Smoking cessation Reward 



Dr. Chao was supported, in part, by the National Institute of Nursing Research of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number K23NR017209. Dr. Schmidt is supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (R01 DA037897 and R21 DA039393) and a grant from NovoNordisk.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Dr. Chao reports grants from National Institute of Nursing Research, personal fees from WW International, Inc., and grants and personal fees from Shire Pharmaceutical, outside the submitted work. Dr. Wadden reports grants and personal fees from Novo Nordisk, grants from Eisai Pharmaceuticals, and personal fees from Weight Watchers, outside the submitted work. Dr. Ashare reports grants from National Institute on Drug Abuse, during the preparation of this paper and grants from Novo Nordisk, Inc., outside the submitted work. Dr. Loughead reports grants from National Institute on Drug Abuse, outside the submitted work. Dr. Schmidt reports grants from National Institute on Drug Abuse, during the conduct of the study and grants from Novo Nordisk, Inc., outside the submitted work.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    US Department of Health Human Services. The health consequences of smoking: a report of the Surgeon General: US Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control; 2004.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Guh DP, Zhang W, Bansback N, Amarsi Z, Birmingham CL, Anis AH. The incidence of co-morbidities related to obesity and overweight: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health. 2009;9(1):88.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    •• World Health Organization. WHO global report on trends in prevalence of tobacco smoking 2000–2025, second edition. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018. This is an updated report on global trends in the prevalene of tobacco smoking. Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    World Health Organization. WHO global report: mortality attributable to tobacco. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    World Health Organization. Obesity and overweight. 2018. Accessed January 10 2019.
  6. 6.
    Freedman DM, Sigurdson AJ, Rajaraman P, Doody MM, Linet MS, Ron E. The mortality risk of smoking and obesity combined. Am J Prev Med. 2006;31(5):355–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ma J, Jemal A, Flanders WD, Ward EM. Joint association of adiposity and smoking with mortality among US adults. Prev Med. 2013;56(3–4):178–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vurbic D, Harder VS, Redner RR, Lopez AA, Phillips JK, Higgins ST. Co-occurring obesity and smoking among US women of reproductive age: associations with educational attainment and health biomarkers and outcomes. Prev Med. 2015;80:60–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Peeters A, Barendregt JJ, Willekens F, Mackenbach JP, Al Mamun A, Bonneux L. Obesity in adulthood and its consequences for life expectancy: a life-table analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138(1):24–32.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Thomas RL, Kelly AB, Chan GC, Hides LM, Quinn CA, Kavanagh DJ, et al. An examination of gender differences in the association of adolescent substance use with eating and weight loss attitudes. Subst Use Misuse. 2018;53(12):1–7.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Caria MP, Bellocco R, Zambon A, Horton NJ, Galanti MR. Overweight and perception of overweight as predictors of smokeless tobacco use and of cigarette smoking in a cohort of Swedish adolescents. Addiction. 2009;104(4):661–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Potter BK, Pederson LL, Chan SS, J-AL A, Koval JJ. Does a relationship exist between body weight, concerns about weight, and smoking among adolescents? An integration of the literature with an emphasis on gender. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6(3):397–425.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Delk J, Creamer MR, Perry CL, Harrell MB. Weight status and cigarette and electronic cigarette use in adolescents. Am J Prev Med. 2018;54(1):e31–e5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    • Fang M. Association between adolescent body mass index and adulthood smoking. Nicotine Tob Res. [published online ahead of print September 4, 2018]. This study includes over 6,600 adolescents who were interviewed at baseline and follow-up to examine the associations between adolescents BMI and smoking status and frequency in adulthood.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    • Patel M, Kaufman A, Hunt Y, Nebeling L. Understanding the relationship of cigarette smoking trajectories through adolescence and weight status in young adulthood in the United States. J Adolesc Health. 2017;61(2):163–70. This study includes over 13,300 adolescents and examines the relationship of smoking trajectories in adolescence on weight status in young adulthood.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Plurphanswat N, Rodu B. The association of smoking and demographic characteristics on body mass index and obesity among adults in the US, 1999–2012. BMC Obes. 2014;1(1):18.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Munafò MR, Tilling K, Ben-Shlomo Y. Smoking status and body mass index: a longitudinal study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009;11(6):765–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dare S, Mackay DF, Pell JP. Relationship between smoking and obesity: a cross-sectional study of 499,504 middle-aged adults in the UK general population. PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0123579.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    •• Veldheer S, Yingst J, Zhu J, Foulds J. Ten-year weight gain in smokers who quit, smokers who continued smoking and never smokers in the United States, NHANES 2003–2012. Int J Obes. 2015;39(12):1727–32. This study examined long-term weight gain and smoking cessation attributable weight gain in a nationally respresntive sample of 12,200 adults.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pisinger C, Jorgensen T. Weight concerns and smoking in a general population: the Inter99 study. Prev Med. 2007;44(4):283–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Aubin H-J, Farley A, Lycett D, Lahmek P, Aveyard P. Weight gain in smokers after quitting cigarettes: meta-analysis. Bmj. 2012;345:e4439.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    •• Tian J, Venn A, Otahal P, Gall S. The association between quitting smoking and weight gain: a systemic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Obes Rev. 2015;16(10):883–901. This systematic review and meta-analysis synthesizes data from 35 studies on the difference in weight gain between quitters and continuing smokers.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Williamson DF, Madans J, Anda RF, Kleinman JC, Giovino GA, Byers T. Smoking cessation and severity of weight gain in a national cohort. N Engl J Med. 1991;324(11):739–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Filozof C, Fernandez Pinilla M, Fernández-Cruz A. Smoking cessation and weight gain. Obes Rev. 2004;5(2):95–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stedman RL. Chemical composition of tobacco and tobacco smoke. Chem Rev. 1968;68(2):153–207.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Le Houezec J. Role of nicotine pharmacokinetics in nicotine addiction and nicotine replacement therapy: a review. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2003;7(9):811–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Benowitz NL, Henningfield JE. Reducing the nicotine content to make cigarettes less addictive. Tob Control. 2013;22(suppl 1):i14–i7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Collins LC, Walker J, Stamford BA. Smoking multiple high-versus low-nicotine cigarettes: impact on resting energy expenditure. Metab Clin Exp. 1996;45(8):923–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schmidt HD, Rupprecht LE, Addy NA. Neurobiological and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying nicotine seeking and smoking relapse. Mol Neuropsychiatry. 2018. 4:169–189.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Audrain-McGovern J, Benowitz N. Cigarette smoking, nicotine, and body weight. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011;90(1):164–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rupprecht LE, Smith TT, Donny EC, Sved AF. Self-administered nicotine suppresses body weight gain independent of food intake in male rats. Nicotine Tob Res. 2016;18(9):1869–76.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Miyata G, Meguid MM, Varma M, Fetissov SO, Kim H-J. Nicotine alters the usual reciprocity between meal size and meal number in female rat. Physiol Behav. 2001;74(1–2):169–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Grunberg NE. The effects of nicotine and cigarette smoking on food consumption and taste preferences. Addict Behav. 1982;7(4):317–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    • MacLean RR, Cowan A, Vernarelli JA. More to gain: dietary energy density is related to smoking status in US adults. BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):365. This study provides data on the association between cigarette use and dietary energy density.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dallongeville J, Marecaux N, Fruchart J-C, Amouyel P. Cigarette smoking is associated with unhealthy patterns of nutrient intake: a meta-analysis. J Nutr. 1998;128(9):1450–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chao AM, White MA, Grilo CM, Sinha R. Examining the effects of cigarette smoking on food cravings and intake, depressive symptoms, and stress. Eat Behav. 2017;24:61–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pepino MY, Mennella JA. Cigarette smoking and obesity are associated with decreased fat perception in women. Obesity. 2014;22(4):1050–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yannakoulia M, Anastasiou C, Zachari K, Sidiropoulou M, Katsaounou P, Tenta R. Acute effect of smoking and smoking abstinence on energy intake and appetite-related hormones blood concentrations. Physiol Behav. 2018;184:78–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Stamford BA, Matter S, Fell RD, Papanek P. Effects of smoking cessation on weight gain, metabolic rate, caloric consumption, and blood lipids. Am J Clin Nutr. 1986;43(4):486–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Moffatt RJ, Owens SG. Cessation from cigarette smoking: changes in body weight, body composition, resting metabolism, and energy consumption. Metab Clin Exp. 1991;40(5):465–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    White MA, Peters EN, Toll BA. Effect of binge eating on treatment outcomes for smoking cessation. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010;12(11):1172–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sinha R, Jastreboff AM. Stress as a common risk factor for obesity and addiction. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;73(9):827–35.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Engel JA, Jerlhag E. Role of appetite-regulating peptides in the pathophysiology of addiction: implications for pharmacotherapy. CNS Drugs. 2014;28(10):875–86.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tweed JO, Hsia SH, Lutfy K, Friedman TC. The endocrine effects of nicotine and cigarette smoke. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2012;23(7):334–42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cummings DE, Purnell JQ, Frayo RS, Schmidova K, Wisse BE, Weigle DS. A preprandial rise in plasma ghrelin levels suggests a role in meal initiation in humans. Diabetes. 2001;50(8):1714–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cummings DE, Frayo RS, Marmonier C, Aubert R, Chapelot D. Plasma ghrelin levels and hunger scores in humans initiating meals voluntarily without time-and food-related cues. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;287(2):E297–304.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chao AM, Jastreboff AM, White MA, Grilo CM, Sinha R. Stress, cortisol, and other appetite-related hormones: prospective prediction of 6-month changes in food cravings and weight. Obesity. 2017;25(4):713–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Valassi E, Scacchi M, Cavagnini F. Neuroendocrine control of food intake. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2008;18(2):158–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Perello M, Dickson S. Ghrelin signalling on food reward: a salient link between the gut and the mesolimbic system. J Neuroendocrinol. 2015;27(6):424–34.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Panagopoulos VN, Ralevski E. The role of ghrelin in addiction: a review. Psychopharmacology. 2014;231(14):2725–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tomoda K, Kubo K, Nishii Y, Yamamoto Y, Yoshikawa M, Kimura H. Changes of ghrelin and leptin levels in plasma by cigarette smoke in rats. J Toxicol Sci. 2012;37(1):131–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kokkinos A, Tentolouris N, Kyriakaki E, Argyrakopoulou G, Doupis J, Psallas M, et al. Differentiation in the short-and long-term effects of smoking on plasma total ghrelin concentrations between male nonsmokers and habitual smokers. Metabolism. 2007;56(4):523–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kaabi YA, Khalifa MA. Acute one-cigarette smoking decreases ghrelin hormone in saliva: a pilot study. Int J Endocrinol. 2014;2014:1–4.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mutschler J, Graf N, Spanaus KS, Rössler W, Hergan K, Binkert CA, et al. Circulating ghrelin levels are not associated with craving and withdrawal symptoms in acute nicotine withdrawal. Psychiatr Danub. 2012;24(2):229–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tong J, Dave N, Mugundu GM, Davis HW, Gaylinn BD, Thorner MO, et al. The pharmacokinetics of acyl, des-acyl, and total ghrelin in healthy human subjects. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013;168(6):821–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Koopmann A, Bez J, Lemenager T, Hermann D, Dinter C, Reinhard I, et al. Effects of cigarette smoking on plasma concentration of the appetite-regulating peptide ghrelin. Ann Nutr Metab. 2015;66(2–3):155–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Fagerberg B, Hultén LM, Hulthe J. Plasma ghrelin, body fat, insulin resistance, and smoking in clinically healthy men: the atherosclerosis and insulin resistance study. Metabolism. 2003;52(11):1460–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lee H, Joe K-H, Kim W, Park J, Lee D-H, Sung K-W, et al. Increased leptin and decreased ghrelin level after smoking cessation. Neurosci Lett. 2006;409(1):47–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    al’Absi M, Lemieux A, Nakajima M. Peptide YY and ghrelin predict craving and risk for relapse in abstinent smokers. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014;49:253–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Burcelin R, Gourdy P. Harnessing glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists for the pharmacological treatment of overweight and obesity. Obes Rev. 2017;18(1):86–98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Holst JJ. The physiology of glucagon-like peptide 1. Physiol Rev. 2007;87(4):1409–39.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Reddy IA, Stanwood GD, Galli A. Moving beyond energy homeostasis: new roles for glucagon-like peptide-1 in food and drug reward. Neurochem Int. 2014;73:49–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Egecioglu E, Engel JA, Jerlhag E. The glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue Exendin-4 attenuates the nicotine-induced locomotor stimulation, accumbal dopamine release, conditioned place preference as well as the expression of locomotor sensitization in mice. PLoS One. 2013;8(10):e77284.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    •• Tuesta LM, Chen Z, Duncan A, Fowler CD, Ishikawa M, Lee BR, et al. GLP-1 acts on habenular avoidance circuits to control nicotine intake. Nat Neurosci. 2017;20(5):708. This preclinical study demonstrated that nicotine activates GLP-1 neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius and GLP-1 agonists decreased nicotine intake in mice.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Stadler M, Tomann L, Storka A, Wolzt M, Peric S, Bieglmayer C, et al. Effects of smoking cessation on β-cell function, insulin sensitivity, body weight, and appetite. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014;170(2):219–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Facchini FS, Hollenbeck CB, Jeppesen J, Chen Y-DI, Reaven G. Insulin resistance and cigarette smoking. Lancet. 1992;339(8802):1128–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bergman BC, Perreault L, Hunerdosse D, Kerege A, Playdon M, Samek AM, et al. Novel and reversible mechanisms of smoking-induced insulin resistance in humans. Diabetes. 2012;61(12):3156–66.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Collins S, Kuhn CM, Petro AE, Swick AG, Chrunyk BA, Surwit RS. Role of leptin in fat regulation. Nature. 1996;380:677.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Wynne K, Stanley S, McGowan B, Bloom S. Appetite control. J Endocrinol. 2005;184(2):291–318.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Nicklas BJ, Tomoyasu N, Muir J, Goldberg AP. Effects of cigarette smoking and its cessation on body weight and plasma leptin levels. Metab Clin Exp. 1999;48(6):804–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Perkins KA, Fonte C. Effects of smoking status and smoking cessation on leptin levels. Nicotine Tob Res. 2002;4(4):459–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lemieux A, Nakajima M, Hatsukami DK, Allen S, al’Absi M. Changes in circulating leptin levels during the initial stage of cessation are associated with smoking relapse. Psychopharmacology. 2015;232(18):3355–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    von der Goltz C, Koopmann A, Dinter C, Richter A, Rockenbach C, Grosshans M, et al. Orexin and leptin are associated with nicotine craving: a link between smoking, appetite and reward. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2010;35(4):570–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Al’Absi M, Hooker S, Fujiwara K, Kiefer F, Von Der Goltz C, Cragin T, et al. Circulating leptin levels are associated with increased craving to smoke in abstinent smokers. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011;97(3):509–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Tomasi D, Baler RD. Obesity and addiction: neurobiological overlaps. Obes Rev. 2013;14(1):2–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    • Criscitelli K, Avena NM. The neurobiological and behavioral overlaps of nicotine and food addiction. Prev Med. 2016;92:82–9. This review highlights preclinical and clinical research on the neurobiological and behavioral overlaps among nicotine, highly palatable food intake, and obesity.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Stojakovic A, Espinosa EP, Farhad OT, Lutfy K. Effects of nicotine on homeostatic and hedonic components of food intake. J Endocrinol. 2017;235(1):R13–31.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Morganstern I, R Barson J, F Leibowitz S. Regulation of drug and palatable food overconsumption by similar peptide systems. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2011;4(3):163–73.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Tang D, Fellows L, Small D, Dagher A. Food and drug cues activate similar brain regions: a meta-analysis of functional MRI studies. Physiol Behav. 2012;106(3):317–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Geha PY, Aschenbrenner K, Felsted J, O’malley SS, Small DM. Altered hypothalamic response to food in smokers. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;97(1):15–22.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rubinstein ML, Luks TL, Dryden WY, Rait MA, Simpson GV. Adolescent smokers show decreased brain responses to pleasurable food images compared with nonsmokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2011;13(8):751–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Jastreboff AM, Sinha R, Lacadie CM, Balodis IM, Sherwin R, Potenza MN. Blunted striatal responses to favorite-food cues in smokers. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015;146:103–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Garrison KA, Sinha R, Lacadie CM, Scheinost D, Jastreboff AM, Constable RT, et al. Functional connectivity during exposure to favorite-food, stress, and neutral-relaxing imagery differs between smokers and nonsmokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2016;18(9):1820–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Mineur YS, Abizaid A, Rao Y, Salas R, DiLeone RJ, Gündisch D, et al. Nicotine decreases food intake through activation of POMC neurons. Science. 2011;332(6035):1330–2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Rigotti NA. Treatment of tobacco use and dependence. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(7):506–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    National Heart L, and Blood Institute. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: the evidence report. Bethesda: National Institutes of Health; 1998. Contract No.: NIH Pub. No. 98–4083Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Veldheer S, Yingst J, Foulds G, Hrabovsky S, Berg A, Sciamanna C, et al. Once bitten, twice shy: concern about gaining weight after smoking cessation and its association with seeking treatment. Int J Clin Pract. 2014;68(3):388–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    • Murphy CM, Rohsenow DJ, Johnson KC, Wing RR. Smoking and weight loss among smokers with overweight and obesity in Look AHEAD. Health Psychol. 2018;37(5):399. This study examines the association between participation in an intensive lifestyle intervention and smoking.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Greenberg I, Stampfer MJ, Schwarzfuchs D, Shai I, Group D. Adherence and success in long-term weight loss diets: the dietary intervention randomized controlled trial (DIRECT). J Am Coll Nutr. 2009;28(2):159–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Jeffery R, Sherwood N, Brelje K, Pronk N, Boyle R, Boucher J, et al. Mail and phone interventions for weight loss in a managed-care setting: weigh-to-be one-year outcomes. Int J Obes. 2003;27(12):1584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Farley AC, Hajek P, Lycett D, Aveyard P. Interventions for preventing weight gain after smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;1.
  92. 92.
    Spring B, Howe D, Berendsen M, McFadden HG, Hitchcock K, Rademaker AW, et al. Behavioral intervention to promote smoking cessation and prevent weight gain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Addiction. 2009;104(9):1472–86.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Spring B, Doran N, Pagoto S, Schneider K, Pingitore R, Hedeker D. Randomized controlled trial for behavioral smoking and weight control treatment: effect of concurrent versus sequential intervention. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004;72(5):785.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    US Department of Health and Human Services. A clinical practice guideline for treating tobacco use and dependence: 2008 update: a US public health service report. Am J Prev Med. 2008;35(2):158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Fiore M. Treating tobacco use and dependence: 2008 update: clinical practice guideline: Rockville: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2009.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Yang M, Bhowmik D, Wang X, Abughosh S. Does combination pharmacological intervention for smoking cessation prevent post-cessation weight gain? A systemic review. Addict Behav. 2013;38(3):1865–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    • Hurt RT, Croghan IT, Schroeder DR, Hays JT, Choi D-S, Ebbert JO. Combination varenicline and lorcaserin for tobacco dependence treatment and weight gain prevention in overweight and obese smokers: a pilot study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2016;19(8):994–8. This pilot study examined the safety and effectiveness of combination varenicline and lorcaserin in prevention post-cessation weight gain in 20 cigarette smokers with overweight or obesity.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    • Shanahan WR, Rose JE, Glicklich A, Stubbe S, Sanchez-Kam M. Lorcaserin for smoking cessation and associated weight gain: a randomized 12-week clinical trial. Nicotine Tob Res. 2016;19(8):944–51. This was a 12-week randomized controlled trial tested the effect of lorcaserin 10 mg daily, 10 mg twice daily, or placebo on smoking abstience and associated weight change.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Wilcox CS, Oskooilar N, Erickson JS, Billes SK, Katz BB, Tollefson G, et al. An open-label study of naltrexone and bupropion combination therapy for smoking cessation in overweight and obese subjects. Addict Behav. 2010;35(3):229–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Toll BA, Leary V, Wu R, Salovey P, Meandzija B, O’Malley SS. A preliminary investigation of naltrexone augmentation of bupropion to stop smoking with less weight gain. Addict Behav. 2008;33(1):173–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    • Mooney ME, Schmitz JM, Allen S, Grabowski J, Pentel P, Oliver A, et al. Bupropion and naltrexone for smoking cessation: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2016;100(4):344–52. This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of buproprion (300 mg/day) + placebo) versus buproprion (300 mg/day) + naltrexone (50 mg/day) on smoking abstinence.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Heymsfield SB, Wadden TA. Mechanisms, pathophysiology, and management of obesity. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(3):254–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Finks JF, Kole KL, Yenumula PR, English WJ, Krause KR, Carlin AM, et al. Predicting risk for serious complications with bariatric surgery: results from the Michigan Bariatric Surgery Collaborative. Ann Surg. 2011;254(4):633–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Haskins IN, Amdur R, Vaziri K. The effect of smoking on bariatric surgical outcomes. Surg Endosc. 2014;28(11):3074–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kowalewski PK, Olszewski R, Walędziak MS, Janik MR, Kwiatkowski A, Paśnik K. Cigarette smoking and its impact on weight loss after bariatric surgery: a single center, retrospective study. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2018;14:1163–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ariana M. Chao
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Thomas A. Wadden
    • 2
  • Rebecca L. Ashare
    • 2
  • James Loughead
    • 2
  • Heath D. Schmidt
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biobehavioral Health Sciences, School of NursingUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations