Green algae produce fatty acid components that can be used in biofuel production without the need for additional nutrients. We aimed to elucidate the contribution of the T. obliquus KNUA019 through the control of the optimal culture (solvent, culture time, nitrogen, and phosphorus) conditions and thermal analysis (DTA and TGA curves) that affects fatty acid productivity maximum lipid yields from the four culture methods. Phylogenetic analysis of Tetradesmus obliquus (Turpin), Scenedesmus obliquus (Turpin), Acutodesmus obliquus (Turpin), and Chlorella sorokiniana (Shihira & R.W.Krauss) strains was attempted using the internal transcribed spacer. T. obliquus KNUA019 can produce significant amounts of carbon-containing components, which are valuable for use as energy sources. As a result of GC analysis, T. obliquus KNUA019 generates fatty acid components that are directly useful as biofuels, such as tetradecanoic acid (C14H28O2), methyl Z-11-tetradecenoate (C15H28O2), tetradecanoic acid (C15H30O2), 9-hexadecenoic acid (C15H30O2), pentadecane (C15H32), 8-heptadecene (C17H34), hexadecanoic acid (C17H34O2), heptadecane (C17H36), 9-octadecenoic acid (C19H36O2), octadecanoic acid (C19H38O2), and 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (C20H40O). These fatty acids can be used directly as biofuel precursors without transesterification. We indicate that commercial biofuel production is possible using mass culture of T. obliquus KNUA019, reducing production costs. This process was indicated as an optimum method for simplifying the process of fatty acid components under optimal culture conditions for a source of biofuels.
Biomass Fatty acid Green algae Tetradesmus obliquus
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
We thank Ji-Won Hong (National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea) and Kyoung-In Lee (Biotechnology Industrialization Center, Dongshin University, Korea) for helpful discussions and assisting with Materials and Methods. This work was supported by a grant from the Next-Generation BioGreen 21 Program (No. PJ01366701), Korea, and the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) and funded by the Ministry of Education (2016R1A6A1A05011910; 2017R1A2B4002016; 2018R1D1A3B07049385), Korea.
YSK and HSY designed the experiments. JY, JMD, and JC performed the experiments. The article was written by YSK and edited by HSY. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
None of the authors has any financial or other relationships that could lead to a conflict of interest.
Buchheim MA, Keller A, Koetschan C et al (2011) Internal transcribed spacer 2 (nu ITS2 rRNA) sequence-structure phylogenetics: towards an automated reconstruction of the green algal tree of life. PLoS ONE 6:e16931CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Chang J, Hong JW, Chae H et al (2013) Natural production of alkane by an easily harvested freshwater cyanobacterium, Phormidium autumnale KNUA026. Algae 28:93–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Choi GG, Bae MS, Ahn CY, Oh HM (2008) Induction of axenic culture of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis based on antibiotic sensitivity of contaminating bacteria. Biotechnol Lett 30:87–92CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Felsenstein J (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39:783–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Furtado ALFF, do Carmo Calijuri M, Lorenzi AS et al (2009) Morphological and molecular characterization of cyanobacteria from a Brazilian facultative wastewater stabilization pond and evaluation of microcystin production. Hydrobiologia 627:195–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hegewald E, Wolf M (2003) Phylogenetic relationships of Scenedesmus and Acutodesmus (Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae) as inferred from 18S rDNA and ITS-2 sequence comparisons. Plant Syst Evol 241:185–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoydonckx HE, De Vos DE, Chavan SA et al (2004) Esterification and transesterification of renewable chemicals. Top Catal 27:83–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jukes TH, Cantor CR (1969) Evolution of protein molecules. In: Munro HN (ed) Mammalian protein metabolism. Academic Press, New York, pp 21–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kang B, Yoon HS (2015) Thermal analysis of green algae for comparing relationship between particle size and heat evolved. Biomass Conv Biorefin 5:279–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khattar JIS, Singh DP, Jindal N, Kaur N, Singh Y, Rahi P, Gulati A (2010) Isolation and characterization of exopolysaccharides produced by the cyanobacterium Limnothrix redekei PUPCCC 116. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 162:1327–1338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim SK, Baek HC, Byun HG et al (2001) Biochemical composition and antioxidative activity of marine microalgae. J Korean Fish Soc 34:260–267Google Scholar
Kumar S, Stecher G, Tamura K (2016) MEGA7: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Mol Biol Evol 33:1870–1874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li X, Hu HY, Gan K et al (2010) Effects of different nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations on the growth, nutrient uptake, and lipid accumulation of a freshwater microalga Scenedesmus sp. Biores Technol 101:5494–5500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lin Q, Lin J (2011) Effects of nitrogen source and concentration on biomass and oil production of a Scenedesmus rubescens like microalga. Biores Technol 102:1615–1621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loza V, Berrendero E, Perona E et al (2013) Polyphasic characterization of benthic cyanobacterial diversity from biofilms of the Guadarrama river (Spain): morphological, molecular, and ecological approaches. J Phycol 49:282–297CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Mandal S, Mallick N (2009) Microalga Scenedesmus obliquus as a potential source for biodiesel production. Microbiol Biotechnol 84:281–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martinez ME, Jimenez JM, El Yousfi F (1999) Influence of phosphorus concentration and temperature on growth and phosphorus uptake by the microalga Scenedesmus obliquus. Biores Technol 67:233–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mercer P, Armenta RE (2011) Developments in oil extraction from microalgae. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 113:539–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nelson DL, Cox MM (2000) Lehninger, principles of biochemistry, 3rd edn. Worth Publishing, New York. ISBN 1-57259-153-6Google Scholar
Ochiai M, Ozao R (1992) Thermal analysis and self-similarity law in particle size distribution of powder sample: part I. Thermochim Acta 198:279–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Razzaque MS (2011) Phosphate toxicity: new insights into an old problem. Clin Sci (Lond) 120:91–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenberg JN, Kobayashi N, Barnes A et al (2014) Comparative analyses of three Chlorella species in response to light and sugar reveal distinctive lipid accumulation patterns in the Microalga C. sorokiniana. PLoS One 9:e92460CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
Sharif Hossain ABM, Salleh A, Boyce AN et al (2008) Biodiesel fuel production from algae as renewable energy. Am J Biochem Biotechnol 4:250–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Somashekar D, Venkateshwaran G, Srividya C et al (2001) Efficacy of extraction methods for lipid and fatty acid composition from fungal cultures. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 17:317–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taton A, Grubisic S, Ertz D et al (2006) Polyphasic study of Antarctic cyanobacterial strains. J Phycol 42:1257–1270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vance C (2001) Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and phosphorus acquisition. Plant nutrition in a world of declining renewable resources. Plant Physiol 127:391–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Widjaja A, Chien CC, Ju YH (2009) Study of increasing lipid production from fresh water microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. J Taiwan Inst Chem E 40:13–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar