An analyses of flavonoids present in the inflorescence of sunflower
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Flavonoids are low molecular weight secondary metabolites present ubiquitously in plants. They are known to have diverse metabolic functions, including regulation of growth and development, protection against biotic and abiotic stress, male fertility and pollen–stigma interaction. Present investigations deal with the importance of flavonoids in reproductive biology of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. 1753), a member of family Asteraceae. A relationship among flavonoids, phenols and reactive oxygen species has been established in the reproductive component of sunflower. Flavonoids have been quantified, localized and compared using diphenylboric acid 2-aminoethyl ester fluorescent probe, high-performance liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography and spectrophotometry. Present investigations reveal that flavonoids and phenols are present in all the components of inflorescence—stigma, pollen, ray and disc florets. Quercetin is the main flavonoid identified in all the components of the inflorescence. Quercetin and kaempferol have been identified in pollen grains. These investigations further reveal that flavonoids act as antioxidants, have a developmental role in stigma, metabolic role in pollen and also play a signalling role in pollen–stigma interactions.
KeywordsPhenols Pollen Pollen–stigma interaction Stigma
The author is grateful to UGC for financial support in form of Minor Research Project Grant. The author is also grateful to the Principal, R. C. Lal, Modinagar for providing necessary infrastructure facilities to carry out the experiments. The author is thankful to IARI New Delhi for providing HPLC quantification of flavonoids. The author is grateful to IGIB for confocal studies. The author expresses gratitude for the aid received from the Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry (c/o Prof. SC Bhatla), University of Delhi for spectrofluorometric studies.
Basudha Sharma has contributed in the form of designing, carrying out of experiments, data analysis and writing of the paper. External help has been taken from different institutes in the form of instrumental facilities.
Complaince with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The author declares that there is no conflict of interest.
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