Brazilian Journal of Botany

, Volume 42, Issue 1, pp 73–82 | Cite as

Triploid frequency of sexual hybridization and pollen and ovary development in mandarins

  • Shirley Nascimento Costa
  • Priscila Andressa Cortez
  • Lucas Aragão da Hora Almeida
  • Fabiano Machado Martins
  • Walter dos Santos Soares Filho
  • Mauricio Antônio Coelho Filho
  • Abelmon da Silva GesteiraEmail author
Original article


This work aimed to ascertain the triploid frequency of sexual hybridization and the pollen and ovary development in Citrus. The ‘Fortune’ mandarin (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. × C. tangerina Hort. ex Tan.) accession was selected as female parent for this study based on its reproductive characteristics, mainly the monoembryony and self-incompatibility. The male parents used were the ‘Cravo’ (C. reticulata, Blanco) and ‘Dancy’ (C. reticulata) mandarins. The pollinations were always manually performed in the morning, and the pollinated flowers were identified for control. During the flowering period, flower samples at different stages of development of the ‘Fortune’ variety were collected for histological analysis. Microspore development occurred regularly in the 4–5 mm (length) phase of the floral buds, and a bicellular microgametophyte was formed in the floral buds with 5–6 mm in length. The formation of the female gametophyte occurred later, in flower buds with approximately 10 mm in length. The hybridizations resulted in 19 triploid plants: five when the ‘Cravo’ mandarin was used as the male parent and 14 when ‘Dancy’ mandarin was used as the male parent, evidencing the importance of the male genitor also in this process.


Clementine × C. tangerine Flower Unreduced gametes 



We thank Liziane Marques dos Santos, Maria Aparecida dos Santos de Jesus and Nayara de Almeida Santos for their kind technical assistance; the Electron Microscopy Center of Santa Cruz State University (UESC), Ilhéus, BA, for providing the facilities for microscopic analyses; the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for the financial support (Grants 301356/2012-2 and 472733/2013-3); and the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for the scholarship to the first author.

Authors contribution

SNC was involved in conception and design of experiment, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and writing and revision of the manuscript. PAC acquired, analyzed and interpreted the data and wrote and revised the manuscript. LAHA was involved in conception and design of the experiment. FMM analyzed and interpreted the data and wrote and revised the manuscript. WSSF was involved in conception and design of the experiment. MACF was involved in conception and design of the experiment. ASG was involved in conception and design of the experiment, writing and revision of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Botanical Society of Sao Paulo 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shirley Nascimento Costa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Priscila Andressa Cortez
    • 1
  • Lucas Aragão da Hora Almeida
    • 1
  • Fabiano Machado Martins
    • 3
  • Walter dos Santos Soares Filho
    • 4
  • Mauricio Antônio Coelho Filho
    • 4
  • Abelmon da Silva Gesteira
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Universidade Estadual de Santa CruzIlhéusBrazil
  2. 2.Faculdade Santo AntônioAlagoinhasBrazil
  3. 3.Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da BahiaCruz das AlmasBrazil
  4. 4.Embrapa Mandioca e FruticulturaCruz das AlmasBrazil

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