Advertisement

European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 363–370 | Cite as

Caries prevalence and distribution in individuals aged 3–20 years in Jönköping, Sweden: trends over 40 years

  • G. KochEmail author
  • A. N. Helkimo
  • C. Ullbro
Original Scientific Article

Abstract

Aim

To present and analyse changes in caries prevalence and caries distribution in child population sample groups in the city of Jönköping, Sweden, based on investigations performed in 1973, 1978, 1983, 1993, 2003, and 2013.

Methods

At each investigation, the study population included about 500 randomly sampled individuals, divided into age groups of 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years. The oral health status of all individuals was clinically and radiographically examined by trained paediatric dentists.

Results

35% of the 3-year-olds were caries-free in 1973, compared to 79% 40 years later. Decayed and filled primary (dfs) and permanent (DFS) tooth surfaces were reduced by 67–90% between 1973 and 2013. Adolescents aged 10 and 15 years exhibited the most pronounced reduction in DFS on the occlusal surfaces. By 2013, more than 90% of the proximal caries lesions in 15-year-olds were initial lesions. About 85% of 15-year-olds had a DFS of ≤ 5, whilst 1% exhibited a DFS of ≥ 26. The corresponding figures for 1973 were 0 and 45% respectively. The DFS score for the 20-year-olds was 35.1 in 1973 and 5.8 in 2013. Caries-free 20-year-olds were not seen until 1993 and reached 19% in 2013.

Conclusions

Despite the dramatic decline in the prevalence of caries, caries still remains a health problem in a limited group of children, particularly those of pre-school ages. Repeated epidemiological studies are recommended to follow changes in oral health over time in order to evaluate existing preventive measures.

Keywords

Children Dental caries Epidemiology Trends 

References

  1. Ahovuo-Saloranta A, Forss H, Walsh T et al (2013 ) Sealants for preventing dental decay in the permanent teeth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3):CD001830. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001830.pub4.
  2. Alm A, Wendt LK, Koch G, Birkhed D. Prevalence of approximal caries in posterior teeth in 15-year-old Swedish teenagers in relation to their caries experience at 3 years of age. Caries Res. 2007;41:392–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Amarante E, Raadal M, Espelid I. Impact of diagnostic criteria on the prevalence of dental caries in Norwegian children aged 5, 12 and 18 years. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1998;26:87–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bratthall D. Introducing the Significant Caries Index together with a proposal for a new global oral health goal for 12-year-olds. Int Dent J. 2000;50:378–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Declaration of Helsinki. Recommendations guiding physicians in biomedical research involving human objects. Adopted by the 18th World Medical Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, 1964. Amended latest by the 59th World Medical Assembly, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 2008.Google Scholar
  6. Haugejorden O, Birkeland JM. Evidence for reversal of the caries decline among Norwegian children. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2002;12:306–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hugoson A. Continuing training of dental care personnel. The realization of a 5-year educational programmes within the county of Jönköping, Sweden. Swed Dent J. 1981;5:65–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hugoson A, Koch G. Oral health in 1000 individuals aged 3–70 years in the community of Jönköping, Sweden. A review. Swed Dent J. 1979;3:69–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Hugoson A, Koch G. Development of a preventive dental care programme for children and adolescents in the county of Jönköping 1973–1979. Swed Dent J. 1981;5:159–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hugoson A, Koch G, Nydell Helkimo A, Lundin SÅ. Caries prevalence and distribution in individuals aged 3–20 years in Jönköping, Sweden, over a 30-year period (1973–2003). Int J Paediatr Dent. 2008;18:18–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Isaksson H, Alm A, Koch G, Birkhed D, Wendt LK. Caries prevalence in Swedish 20-year-olds in relation to their previous caries experience. Caries Res. 2013;47:234–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Koch G. Effect of sodium fluoride in dentifrice and mouthwash on incidence of dental caries in schoolchildren. Odontol Revy. 1967;18(Suppl):12.Google Scholar
  13. Li Y, Wang W. Predicting caries in permanent teeth from caries in primary teeth: an eight-year cohort study. J Dent Res. 2002;81:561–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Lindblom C. Waiting for dental care—how tooth decay became politics. Stockholm: Carlssons bokförlag; 2004 (Summary in English).Google Scholar
  15. Löfstedt-Stålhane I. Progression of untreated dental caries in the occlusal surfaces of the first permanent molar—a clinical investigation. Odontol Revy. 1961;12:55–66.Google Scholar
  16. Mejàre I, Stenlund H, Julihn A, Larsson I, Permert L. Influence of approximal caries in primary molars on caries rate for the mesial surface of the first permanent molar in Swedish children from 6 to 12 years of age. Caries Res. 2001;35:178–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Norderyd O, Koch G, Papias A, et al. Oral health of individuals aged 3–80 years in Jönköping, Sweden, during 40 years (1973–2013). II. Review of clinical and radiographic findings. Swed Dent J. 2015a;39:69–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Norderyd O, Koch G, Papias A, et al. Oral health of individuals aged 3–80 years in Jönköping, Sweden, during 40 years (1973–2013). I. Review of findings on oral care habits and knowledge of oral health. Swed Dent J. 2015b;39:57–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Skeie MS, Raadal M, Strand GV, Espelid I. The relationship between caries in the primary dentition at 5 years of age and permanent dentition at 10 years of age—a longitudinal study. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2006;16:152–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Stecksén-Blicks C, Sunnegårdh K, Borssén E. Caries experience and background factors in 4-year-old children: time trends 1967–2002. Caries Res. 2004;38:149–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Wendt LK, Koch G, Birkhed D. Long-term evaluation of a fissure sealing programme in Public Dental Service clinics in Sweden. Swed Dent J. 2001;25:61–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Institute for Postgraduate Dental EducationJönköpingSweden
  2. 2.UiT The Arctic University of NorwayTromsöNorway
  3. 3.Department of Paediatric DentistryThe Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, JönköpingJönköpingSweden

Personalised recommendations