European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 243–250 | Cite as

Dental and craniofacial findings in 91 individuals with agenesis of permanent maxillary canines

  • K. P. Arvedsen
  • I. KjærEmail author
Original Scientific Article



Agenesis of maxillary permanent canines is a rare form of agenesis (prevalence 0.07–0.13%). The aetiology is still unknown. The purpose was to focus on dentitions and craniofacial profiles in individuals with maxillary canine agenesis.


From 91 individuals (10–18 years of age) 91 Orthopantomograms and 77 profile radiographs were divided accordingly: Group I: agenesis of 1 or 2 maxillary canines. Group II: several ageneses including the maxillary canines. Dentition analysis included crown/root shape, invaginations, eruption disturbances and resorption patterns. Cephalometric angular measurements and mutual comparisons between the groups were performed. Agenesis pattern in Group II was compared to agenesis pattern in a population of children and young adults not characterized by maxillary canine agenesis. Cephalometric values from both groups were compared to normal values from individuals without agenesis. Findings were statistically evaluated.


Dentition: Group I: only the missing maxillary canines were deemed to be in an abnormal dental deviation. Group II: abnormal dental development regarding morphology, resorption of primary teeth and also agenesis of the first maxillary premolar. Comparison of the groups showed a difference in the pattern of malformation. Profile: Group I: anterior inclination of the maxilla and increased cranial base angle were significant findings. Group II: diminished incisor slope in the maxilla and enlarged cranial base angle were significant findings. A comparison showed a difference in maxillary inclinations of the teeth.


Group I dentitions are normally developed with only minor dental malformations. Group II dentitions had several dental malformations and often agenesis of the first maxillary premolar. Significant findings: first maxillary premolar agenesis in Group II and enlarged cranial base angle in both groups.


Maxilla Canines Agenesis Orthopantomogram Profile radiographs Cephalometry 



Many sincere thanks to all those orthodontists who contributed with materials for this study. Furthermore, thanks are also due to “Union for Specialized Dentists in Orthodontics” for support and establishing contact to all specialists in orthodontics in Denmark concerning the present investigation.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Both authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Odontology School of Dentistry, Faculty of Health and Medical SciencesUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagen NDenmark

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