European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 17, Issue 6, pp 455–460 | Cite as

Reliability of horizontal and vertical tube shift techniques in the localisation of supernumerary teeth

  • S. K. Mallineni
  • R. P. AnthonappaEmail author
  • N. M. King
Original Scientific Article



To assess the reliability of the vertical tube shift technique (VTST) and horizontal tube shift technique (HTST) for the localisation of unerupted supernumerary teeth (ST) in the anterior region of the maxilla.


A convenience sample of 83 patients who attended a major teaching hospital because of unerupted ST was selected. Only non-syndromic patients with ST and who had complete clinical and radiographic and surgical records were included in the study. Ten examiners independently rated the paired set of radiographs for each technique. Chi-square test, paired t test and kappa statistics were employed to assess the intra- and inter-examiner reliability.


Paired sets of 1660 radiographs (830 pairs for each technique) were available for the analysis. The overall sensitivity for VTST and HTST was 80.6 and 72.1% respectively, with slight inter-examiner and good intra-examiner reliability. Statistically significant differences were evident between the two localisation techniques (p < 0.05).


Localisation of unerupted ST using VTST was more successful than HTST in the anterior region of the maxilla.


Supernumerary teeth Localisation Radiographs 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Anthonappa RP, King NM, Rabie AB, Mallineni SK. Reliability of panoramic radiographs for identifying supernumerary teeth in children. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2012a;22:37–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anthonappa RP, King NM, Rabie AB. Diagnostic tools used to predict the prevalence of supernumerary teeth: a meta-analysis. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2012b;41:444–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Anthonappa RP, King NM, Rabie AB. Prevalence of supernumerary teeth based on panoramic radiographs revisited. Pediatr Dent. 2013;35:257–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anthonappa RP, Omer RS, King NM. Characteristics of 283 supernumerary teeth in southern Chinese children. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;105:e48–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Clark CA. method of ascertaining the position of unerupted teeth by means of film radiographs. Proc R Soc Med. 1910;3:87–90.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Isaacson KG, Thom AR, Horner K, Whaites EJ. Orthodontic radiographs—guidelines. 3rd ed. London: British Orthodontic Society; 2008.Google Scholar
  7. Keur JJ. Radiographic localization techniques. Aust Dent J. 1986;31:86–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ludlow JB, Davies-Ludlow LE, White SC. Patient risk related to common dental radiographic examinations: the impact of 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations regarding dose calculation. J Am Dent Assoc. 2008;139:1237–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Omer RS, Anthonappa RP, King NM. Determination of the optimum time for surgical removal of unerupted anterior supernumerary teeth. Pediatr Dent. 2010;32:14–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Perschbacher S. Interpretation of panoramic radiographs. Aust Dent J. 2012;57(Suppl 1):40–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Southall PJ, Gravely JF. Radiographic localization of unerupted teeth in the anterior part of the maxilla: a survey of methods currently employed. Br J Orthod. 1987;14:235–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Witcher TP, Brand S, Gwilliam JR, McDonald F. Assessment of the anterior maxilla in orthodontic patients using upper anterior occlusal radiographs and dental panoramic tomography: a comparison. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;109:765–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. K. Mallineni
    • 1
  • R. P. Anthonappa
    • 2
    Email author
  • N. M. King
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pedodontics and Preventive DentistryNarayana Dental College and HospitalNelloreIndia
  2. 2.School of DentistryThe University of Western AustraliaNedlandsAustralia

Personalised recommendations