Advertisement

European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 59–64 | Cite as

Inhibition of enamel demineralisation using “Nd-YAG and diode laser assisted fluoride therapy”

  • B. R. ChandEmail author
  • S. Kulkarni
  • P. Mishra
Original Scientific Article

Abstract

Aim

This in vitro study was to evaluate the irradiation efficacy of the Diode laser and the Nd-YAG laser either un-assisted or assisted by acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) treatment on enamel’s acid resistance.

Methods

Seventy-two enamel samples, obtained from 12 extracted human molars, were randomly assigned to 6 groups as follows: (1) Control (C); (2) Exposed to APF gel (F); (3) Diode laser (DL); (4) Irradiated with Diode laser through APF gel (DL/F); (5) Nd-YAG laser (NL) and (6) Irradiated with Nd-YAG laser through APF gel (NL/F). The specimens were individually demineralised in an acidified hydroxyethylcellulose system, and the acid resistance was evaluated by determining the calcium ion dissolution using atomic absorption spectrometry.

Results

The average concentration of the calcium ion determined in groups 1 to 6 was 901, 757, 736, 592, 497 and 416 parts per million micrograms/gram, respectively. The results showed that demineralisation in the NL/F group was significantly less than the other groups and the control group was significantly greater than the other groups (P < 0.001).

Conclusion

The effect of Nd-YAG laser irradiation, used alone or in combination with APF, in decreasing the enamel demineralisation was greater than all the other groups.

Keywords

Enamel Lasers Demineralisation Atomic absorption spectrometry 

References

  1. Alberto G, Juan DD. Comparison of effects of diode laser and CO2 lasers on human teeth and their usefulness in topical fluoridation. Laser Med Sci. 2011;26:317–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Banda NR, Reddy VG, Shashikiran ND. Evaluation of primary tooth enamel surface morphology and microhardness after Nd: YAG laser irradiation and APF gel treatment—an in vitro study. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2011;35(4):377–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bedini R, Manzon L, Fratto G, Pecci R. Microhardness and morphological changes induced by Nd: YAG laser on dental enamel: an in vitro study. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2010;46(2):168–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Harazaki M, Hayakawa K, Fukui T, Isshiki Y, Powell GL. The Nd:YAG laser is useful in prevention of dental caries during orthodontic treatment. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll 2001;42:79–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Hossain M, Kimura Y, Nakamura Y, Yamada Y, Kinoshita JI, Matsumoto K. A study on acquired acid resistance of enamel and dentin irradiated by Er, Cr: YSGG laser. J Clin Laser Med Surg. 2001;19:159–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Hsu CY, Jordan TH, Dederich DN, Wefel JS. Effects of low-energy CO2 laser irradiation and the organic matrix on inhibition of enamel demineralization. J Dent Res. 2000;79:1725–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Huang GF, Lan WH, Guo MK, Chiang CP. Synergistic effect of Nd: YAG laser combined with fluoride varnish on inhibition of caries formation in dental pits and fissures in vitro. J Formos Med Assoc. 2001;100(3):181–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Kato IT, Kohara EK, Sarkis JE, Wetter NU. Effects of 960 nm diode laser irradiation on calcium solubility of dental enamel: an in vitro study. Photomed Laser Surg. 2006;24(6):689–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Liu Y, Hsu CY, Teo CM, Teoh SH. Potential mechanism for the laser fluoride effect on enamel demineralisation. J Dent Res. 2013;92(1):71–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Majori M, Manzon L, Pane S, Bedini R. Effects of Nd: YAG laser on dental enamel. J Appl Biomater Biomech. 2005;3:128–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Nelson DG, Jongebloed WL, Featherstone JD. Laser irradiation of human dental enamel and dentine. NZ Dent J. 1986;82:74–7.Google Scholar
  12. Nemati AS, Maryam S, Fekrazad R. Effects of laser-assisted fluoride therapy with a CO2 laser and Er, Cr: YSSG laser on enamel demineralisation. Pediatric Dentistry. 2012;3(4):e92–6.Google Scholar
  13. Oho T, Morioka T. A possible mechanism of acquired acid resistance of human dental enamel by laser irradiation. Caries Res. 1990;24(2):86–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Pelino JE, Mello JB, Eduardo CP, Jorge AO. In vitro study of the Nd: YAG laser effect on human dental enamel: optical and scanning electron microscope analysis. J Clin Laser Med Surg. 1999;17(4):171–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Roy G. Laser in dentistry—review. Int J Dent Clin. 2000;1(1):13–21.Google Scholar
  16. Saafan AM, Mehani SS, Nermin YM. Effect of diode laser on enamel fissure system: morphological & micro hardness analysis I. Res Laser. 2012;3:106–10.Google Scholar
  17. Stern RH, Sognnaes RF. Laser effect on dental hard tissues. A preliminary report. J South Calif Dent Assoc. 1965;33:17–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Tagomori S, Morioka T. Combined effects of laser and fluoride on acid resistance of human dental enamel. Caries Res. 1989;23(4):225–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Tsai CL, Lin YT, Huang ST, Chang HW. In vitro acid resistance of CO2 and Nd-YAG laser-treated human tooth enamel. Caries Res. 2002;36:423–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Villalba-Moreno J, Rodriguez AG, de Dios Lopez Gonzalez J, Carmona MVB, Muriel VP. Increased fluoride uptake in human dental specimens treated with diode laser. Lasers Med Sci. 2007;22:137–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Vitale MC, Zaffe D, Botticell AR, Caprioglio C. Diode laser irradiation and fluoride uptake in human teeth. Eur Arch Pediatr Dent. 2011;12(2):90–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Vlacic J, Meyers IA, Kim J, Walsh LJ. Laser-activated fluoride treatment of enamel against an artificial caries challenge: comparison of five wavelengths. Aust Dent J. 2007;52(2):101–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Yamamoto H, Sato K. Prevention of dental caries by acousto-optically Q-switched Nd: YAG laser irradiation. J Dent Res. 1980;59(2):137.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Zezell D, Edwards C. Nd: YAG laser caries prevention occlusal surface clinical trial. Vienna: ESOLA; 2001.Google Scholar
  25. Zezell DM, Boari HG, Ana PA, Eduardo CP, Powell GL. Nd: YAG laser in caries prevention: a clinical trial. Lasers Surg Med. 2009;41(1):31–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pedodontics and Preventive DentistrySri Aurobindo College of DentistryIndoreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Public Health DentistrySri Aurobindo College of DentistryIndoreIndia

Personalised recommendations