European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 16, Issue 5, pp 397–407 | Cite as

Age-related changes in the location of the mandibular and mental foramen in children with Mongoloid skeletal pattern

  • M. Y. Lim
  • W. W. Lim
  • S. RajanEmail author
  • P. Nambiar
  • W. C. Ngeow
Original Scientific Article



To observe age-related changes in the locations of mandibular foramen (MF) and mental foramen (mf) using dental panoramic tomographs (DPTs).


Ethical approval was obtained for this retrospective study. Location of MF was related to the ramus and occlusal plane, while mf to (i) erupted primary molars (ii) unerupted premolar tooth germs (iii) vertical height at the body of the mandible.


One hundred and sixty-five DPTs were obtained from children with Mongoloid skeletal pattern. The ethnic composition was 112 Malays and 53 Chinese children (Willems dental age = 5.2–16.0 years). At the horizontal plane, MF remained constant at middle mid-quadrant of the ramus (88 %) and vertical plane; 68 % located below and 40 % above the occlusal plane. At age 9 years and above, there was a significant tendency for MF to be located at the level of occlusal plane. The most common location of mf was related to (i) erupted primary molars, mesial root of second primary molar (38 %); (ii) unerupted premolars tooth germs, between the apices of first and second premolar (44 %); and (iii) proportional vertical height to the mandible, middle third (52 %). At age 11 years and above, a significant tendency of mf to be located at the middle third of the body of mandible was observed.


With advancing age and growth, the position of MF remained constant at the ramus with tendency to move from below to at the level of occlusal plane, while mf moved distally and inferiorly.


Children Mandibular foramen Mandible Ramus Mental foramen Occlusal plane Willems dental age 



This research was supported by UM.C/625/1/HIR/MOHE/DENT/05 grant from University of Malaya, Malaysia.


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Copyright information

© European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Y. Lim
    • 1
  • W. W. Lim
    • 1
  • S. Rajan
    • 2
    Email author
  • P. Nambiar
    • 3
  • W. C. Ngeow
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Melbourne Dental SchoolUniversity of MelbourneVictoriaAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Diagnostic and Integrated Dental Practice, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  4. 4.Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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