European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 271–276 | Cite as

Severity of MIH findings at tooth surface level among German school children

  • M. A. PetrouEmail author
  • M. Giraki
  • A.-R. Bissar
  • C. Wempe
  • M. Schäfer
  • U. Schiffner
  • T. Beikler
  • A. G. Schulte
  • C. H. Splieth
Original Scientific Article



This study was to investigate the distribution and clinical characteristics of teeth diagnosed with MIH at surface and defect type level in a cohort of German children.


The study cohort included 242 children diagnosed with MIH which had been recorded during the compulsory dental school examinations of 20 German primary schools. The subjects had been enrolled by cluster sampling. All children attended the second to fourth grade (age 7–10 years, mean 8.1 ± 0.8). The children were examined by five calibrated examiners (kappa = 0.9) after tooth brushing. The recording comprised teeth, surfaces, type and severity of MIH defects and was conducted using a portable light, mirrors and cotton rolls. MIH was registered according to the EAPD criteria. Defects <1 mm were not recorded. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and Spearman’s correlation.


Most affected teeth were first permanent molars (71.4 %) followed by the maxillary central incisors (15.6 %). The most common defects were demarcated opacities (82.2 %), while the remaining 17.8 % of the affected teeth exhibited severe enamel defects. The most frequently affected surface in molars was the occlusal surface (72.4 %); in incisors, it was the buccal surface (73.5 %). There were no atypical restorations in the affected incisors. Different types of MIH defects at various surfaces of the same tooth were common. The number of affected tooth surfaces was positively correlated with the severity of MIH at child (p < 0.001).


The study demonstrates severe enamel defects involving in almost one-fifth of all MIH teeth. The knowledge of the intra-oral distribution and severity of MIH findings at the enamel surface level is important for assessing the treatment needs.


MIH Germany Tooth surface Combinations 



We would like to express our gratitude to the directors and co-workers of the public health centres and universities of Düsseldorf, Greifswald, Hamburg and Heidelberg for their contribution to this multi-centre research.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Petrou
    • 1
    • 8
    Email author
  • M. Giraki
    • 2
  • A.-R. Bissar
    • 3
    • 4
  • C. Wempe
    • 6
  • M. Schäfer
    • 5
  • U. Schiffner
    • 7
  • T. Beikler
    • 2
  • A. G. Schulte
    • 3
  • C. H. Splieth
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Preventive and Paediatric DentistryUniversity of GreifswaldGreifswaldGermany
  2. 2.Department of Operative Dentistry, Periodontics, and EndodonticsUniversity of DüsseldorfDüsseldorfGermany
  3. 3.Department of Conservative DentistryUniversity of HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany
  4. 4.Gesundheitsamt Rhein-Neckar-KreisHeidelbergGermany
  5. 5.GesundheitsamtDüsseldorfGermany
  6. 6.Gesundheitsamt EimsbüttelHamburgGermany
  7. 7.Department of Conservative and Preventive DentistryUniversity of HamburgHamburgGermany
  8. 8.Department of Operative Dentistry, Periodontology and Preventive DentistryRWTH-University of AachenAachenGermany

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