Advertisement

European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 15, Issue 5, pp 317–326 | Cite as

Root canal morphology of primary molars: a micro-computed tomography study

  • A. C. Fumes
  • M. D. Sousa-NetoEmail author
  • G. B. Leoni
  • M. A. Versiani
  • L. A. B. da Silva
  • R. A. B. da Silva
  • A. Consolaro
Original Scientific Article

Abstract

Aim

This was to investigate the root canal morphology of primary molar teeth using micro-computed tomography.

Methods

Primary maxillary (n = 20) and mandibular (n = 20) molars were scanned at a resolution of 16.7 μm and analysed regarding the number, location, volume, area, structured model index (SMI), area, roundness, diameters, and length of canals, as well as the thickness of dentine in the apical third. Data were statistically compared by using paired-sample t test, independent sample t test, and one-way analysis of variance with significance level set as 5 %.

Results

Overall, no statistical differences were found between the canals with respect to length, SMI, dentine thickness, area, roundness, and diameter (p > 0.05). A double canal system was observed in the mesial and mesio-buccal roots of the mandibular and maxillary molars, respectively. The thickness in the internal aspect of the roots was lower than in the external aspect. Cross-sectional evaluation of the roots in the apical third showed flat-shaped canals in the mandibular molars and ribbon- and oval-shaped canals in the maxillary molars.

Conclusions

External and internal anatomy of the primary first molars closely resemble the primary second molars. The reported data may help clinicians to obtain a thorough understanding of the morphological variations of root canals in primary molars to overcome problems related to shaping and cleaning procedures, allowing appropriate management strategies for root canal treatment.

Keywords

Deciduous teeth Dental pulp cavity Micro-computed tomography Primary molars 

Notes

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Aminabadi NA, Farahani RM, Gajan EB. Study of root canal accessibility in human primary molars. J Oral Sci. 2008;50:69–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Badger GR. Three-rooted mandibular first primary molar. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1982;53:547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bagherian A, Kalhori KA, Sadeghi M, Mirhosseini F, Parisay I. An in vitro study of root and canal morphology of human deciduous molars in an Iranian population. J Oral Sci. 2010;52:397–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beltrame AP, Triches TC, Sartori N, Bolan M. Electronic determination of root canal working length in primary molar teeth: an in vivo and ex vivo study. Int Endod J. 2011;44:402–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Caceda JH, Creath CJ, Thomas JP, Thornton JB. Unilateral fusion of primary molars with the presence of a succedaneous supernumerary tooth: case report. Pediatr Dent. 1994;16:53–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cleghorn BM, Boorberg NB, Christie WH. Primary human teeth and their root canal systems. Endod Topics. 2012;23:6–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eden EK, Koca H, Sen BH. Dens invaginatus in a primary molar: report of case. ASDC J Dent Child. 2002;69:49–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Falk WV, Bowers DF. Bilateral three-rooted mandibular first primary molars: report of case. ASDC J Dent Child. 1983;50:136–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Fornari VJ, Silva-Sousa YT, Vanni JR, et al. Histological evaluation of the effectiveness of increased apical enlargement for cleaning the apical third of curved canals. Int Endod J. 2010;43:988–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fuks AB. Pulp therapy for the primary and young permanent dentitions. Dent Clin N Am. 2000;44:571–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Goodacre CJ. Atlas of the human dentition. 2nd ed. Loma Linda: Loma Linda School of Dentistry; 2003.Google Scholar
  12. Hibbard ED, Ireland RL. Morphology of the root canals of the primary molar teeth. J Dent Child. 1957;24:250–7.Google Scholar
  13. Hülsmann M, Peters OA, Dummer PMH. Mechanical preparation of root canals: shaping goals, techniques and means. Endod Topics. 2005;10:30–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Johnston NJ, Franklin DL. Dental findings of a child with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2006;16:139–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kavanagh C, O’Sullivan VR. A four-rooted primary upper second molar. Int J Paediatr Dent. 1998;8:279–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liu JF, Dai PW, Chen SY, et al. Prevalence of 3-rooted primary mandibular second molars among Chinese patients. Pediatr Dent. 2010;32:123–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Metzger Z, Teperovich E, Zary R, Cohen R, Hof R. The self-adjusting file (SAF). Part 1: respecting the root canal anatomy - a new concept of endodontic files and its implementation. J Endod. 2010;36:679–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Peters OA, Laib A, Ruegsegger P, Barbakow F. Three-dimensional analysis of root canal geometry by high-resolution computed tomography. J Dent Res. 2000;79:1405–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Poornima P. Subba Reddy VV. Comparison of digital radiography, decalcification, and histologic sectioning in the detection of accessory canals in furcation areas of human primary molars. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2008;26:49–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pratt WK. Digital image processing. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley; 1991.Google Scholar
  21. Ribeiro MVM, Silva-Sousa YT, Versiani MA, et al. Comparison of the cleaning efficacy of self-adjusting file and rotary systems in the apical third of oval-shaped canals. J Endod. 2013;39:398–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ringelstein D, Seow WK. The prevalence of furcation foramina in primary molars. Pediatr Dent. 1989;11:198–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Salama FS, Anderson RW, McKnight-Hanes C, Barenie JT, Myers DR. Anatomy of primary incisor and molar root canals. Pediatr Dent. 1992;14:117–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Simpson WJ. An examination of root canal anatomy of primary teeth. J Can Dent Assoc. 1973;39:637–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Siqueira JF Jr, Alves FR, Almeida BM, de Oliveira JC, Roças IN. Ability of chemomechanical preparation with either rotary instruments or self-adjusting file to disinfect oval-shaped root canals. J Endod. 2010;36:1860–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Song JS, Kim SO, Choi BJ, et al. Incidence and relationship of an additional root in the mandibular first permanent molar and primary molars. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;107:e56–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Versiani MA, Pécora JD, Sousa-Neto MD. Flat-oval root canal preparation with self-adjusting file instrument: a micro-computed tomography study. J Endod. 2011;37:1002–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Versiani MA, Pécora JD, Sousa-Neto MD. Root and root canal morphology of four-rooted maxillary second molars: a micro-computed tomography study. J Endod. 2012;38:977–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Versiani MA, Steier L, De-Deus G, et al. Micro-computed tomography study of oval-shaped canals prepared with the Self-adjusting File, Reciproc, WaveOne, and Protaper Universal systems. J Endod. 2013;39:1060–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Winkler MP, Ahmad R. Multirooted anomalies in the primary dentition of Native Americans. J Am Dent Assoc. 1997;128:1009–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wrbas KT, Kielbassa AM, Hellwig E. Microscopic studies of accessory canals in primary molar furcations. ASDC J Dent Child. 1997;64:118–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Zoremchhingi, Joseph T, Varma B, Mungara J. A study of root canal morphology of human primary molars using computerized tomography: an in vitro study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2005;23:7–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. C. Fumes
    • 1
  • M. D. Sousa-Neto
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • G. B. Leoni
    • 2
  • M. A. Versiani
    • 2
  • L. A. B. da Silva
    • 1
  • R. A. B. da Silva
    • 1
  • A. Consolaro
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Dental School of Ribeirão PretoUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Restorative Dentistry, Dental School of Ribeirão PretoUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.São PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations