European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 75–82 | Cite as

Molar–incisor hypomineralisation: a prevalence study amongst primary schoolchildren of Shiraz, Iran

  • A. Ghanim
  • R. BagheriEmail author
  • A. Golkari
  • D. Manton
Original Scientific Article



To investigate the prevalence of molar–incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) amongst primary schoolchildren of Shiraz, Iran, taking into account the possible influence of biographic and socio-demographic parameters.

Study design and methods

A randomised cluster sample of 9- to 11-year-old children (N = 810) had their first permanent molars and incisors (index teeth) evaluated using the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry criteria for MIH. The examinations were conducted at schools by a calibrated examiner. Prevalence of MIH was assessed based on biographic and socio-demographic parameters including area of residency, school type, father’s level of education, weight-for-age and height-for-age.

Results and statistics

Of the children examined, 164/810 (20.2 %) had MIH and 53.7 % of them presented with MIH lesions in all first molars. Mild defects represented by demarcated yellow brown opacities comprised 35.5 % of the total MIH lesions. The prevalence of MIH was significantly greater in girls, children with healthy body weight and height, those whose fathers did not have a tertiary education and from families of low socio-economic status. Regression analyses indicated that none of the biographic and socio-demographic variables represented a significant risk factor in the occurrence of MIH except for body weight. Obesity was negatively correlated to MIH (OR = 0.45; 95 % CI 0.25–0.82).


The prevalence of MIH in a group of Iranian children was 20.2 %. Biographic and socio-demographic parameters appeared to have no significant correlation with MIH except body weight, which warrants further research.


Molar–incisor hypomineralisation MIH Prevalence Developmental enamel defects Shiraz Iran 



This research was partly supported by Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The authors thank all students who participated in this study and also appreciate the Schools’ staffs for their assistant to facilitate collecting the data. We also acknowledge Dr M.R. Azar (The Head of Shiraz Dental School) for his support in carrying out this study. Special thanks to Dr D. Bailey, Dr H. Haydari, Mr F. Banizaman Lari (Lecturer in Farhangian University) and Mrs R. Keshavarzi for their valuable assistance throughout the study.


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Copyright information

© European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Ghanim
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. Bagheri
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • A. Golkari
    • 4
  • D. Manton
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Cooperative Research Centre for Oral Health Science, Melbourne Dental SchoolUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Epidemiology, Mosul Dental CollegeUniversity of MosulNinevehIraq
  3. 3.Dental Material Department, Biomaterial Research Centre, Shiraz Dental SchoolShiraz University of Medical SciencesShirazIran
  4. 4.Dental Public Health Department, Shiraz Dental SchoolShiraz University of Medical SciencesShirazIran
  5. 5.Elsdon Storey Chair of Child Dental Health, Growth and Development, Melbourne Dental SchoolThe University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

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