European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 259–265 | Cite as

Knowledge and attitude of dental trauma among mothers in Iraq

  • G. H. YassenEmail author
  • J. R. Chin
  • M. S. Younus
  • G. J. Eckert
Original Scientific Article



To evaluate the knowledge and attitude of Iraqi mothers regarding dental trauma prevention and management.

Study design and methods

Mothers (n = 231) that visited two professional dental centres in Mosul, Iraq, were interviewed and asked to answer a three-part questionnaire containing questions about demographic variables, attitudes and knowledge of dental trauma.


The relationships of the demographic variables with the total knowledge score of the correct responses were analysed using two-sample t tests. The number of correct responses regarding management of avulsed teeth compared to that of fractured teeth was evaluated using a paired t test. A 5 % level of statistical significance was applied for the analyses.


The mean knowledge score was 5.2 (on a scale of 0–10). No significant differences were found in knowledge score with respect to mothers’ age, educational level, working status, personal experience with dental trauma or first aid training (p > 0.05). Mothers with either at least a high school education or previous experience with dental trauma were more likely to recommend that their children wear mouth guards during sports (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively). Mothers who were 35 years of age and older were more likely to know how to correctly carry an avulsed tooth to a dentist. Mothers’ knowledge regarding management of fractured teeth was significantly higher than that of avulsed teeth (p < 0.0001).


Mothers in Mosul, Iraq, did not have sufficient knowledge about the prevention and management of traumatic dental injuries. Intervention programmes should be considered to increase mothers’ awareness regarding dental injuries.


Trauma knowledge Avulsed teeth Fractured teeth Dental trauma 



The authors thank Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis Center for Service and Learning for their support of this work through the Sam H. Jones Service Learning Scholarship award.


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Copyright information

© European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. H. Yassen
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. R. Chin
    • 2
  • M. S. Younus
    • 3
  • G. J. Eckert
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Paediatric, Orthodontic and Preventive DentistryMosul University School of DentistryMosulIraq
  2. 2.Department of Paediatric DentistryIndiana University School of DentistryIndianapolisUSA
  3. 3.Directorate of Nineveh HealthMosulIraq
  4. 4.Department of BiostatisticsIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA

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