Advertisement

European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 259–265 | Cite as

Knowledge and attitude of dental trauma among mothers in Iraq

  • G. H. YassenEmail author
  • J. R. Chin
  • M. S. Younus
  • G. J. Eckert
Original Scientific Article

Abstract

Aim

To evaluate the knowledge and attitude of Iraqi mothers regarding dental trauma prevention and management.

Study design and methods

Mothers (n = 231) that visited two professional dental centres in Mosul, Iraq, were interviewed and asked to answer a three-part questionnaire containing questions about demographic variables, attitudes and knowledge of dental trauma.

Statistics

The relationships of the demographic variables with the total knowledge score of the correct responses were analysed using two-sample t tests. The number of correct responses regarding management of avulsed teeth compared to that of fractured teeth was evaluated using a paired t test. A 5 % level of statistical significance was applied for the analyses.

Results

The mean knowledge score was 5.2 (on a scale of 0–10). No significant differences were found in knowledge score with respect to mothers’ age, educational level, working status, personal experience with dental trauma or first aid training (p > 0.05). Mothers with either at least a high school education or previous experience with dental trauma were more likely to recommend that their children wear mouth guards during sports (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively). Mothers who were 35 years of age and older were more likely to know how to correctly carry an avulsed tooth to a dentist. Mothers’ knowledge regarding management of fractured teeth was significantly higher than that of avulsed teeth (p < 0.0001).

Conclusions

Mothers in Mosul, Iraq, did not have sufficient knowledge about the prevention and management of traumatic dental injuries. Intervention programmes should be considered to increase mothers’ awareness regarding dental injuries.

Keywords

Trauma knowledge Avulsed teeth Fractured teeth Dental trauma 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis Center for Service and Learning for their support of this work through the Sam H. Jones Service Learning Scholarship award.

References

  1. Al-Asfour A, Andersson L. The effect of a leaflet given to parents for first aid measures after tooth avulsion. Dent Traumatol. 2008;24:515–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Jame Q, Andersson L, Al-Asfour A. Kuwaiti parents’ knowledge of first-aid measures of avulsion and replantation of teeth. Med Princ Pract. 2007;16:274–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Jundi SH. Dental emergencies presenting to a dental teaching hospital due to complications from traumatic dental injuries. Dent Traumatol. 2002;18:181–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Jundi SH. Knowledge of Jordanian mothers with regards to emergency management of dental trauma. Dent Traumatol. 2006;22:291–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blakytny C, Surbuts C, Thomas A, Hunter ML. Avulsed permanent incisors: knowledge and attitudes of primary school teachers with regard to emergency management. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2001;11:327–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Borum MK, Andreasen JO. Therapeutic and economic implications of traumatic dental injuries in Denmark: an estimate based on 7549 patients treated at a major trauma centre. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2001;11:249–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bourguignon C, Sigurdsson A. Preventive strategies for traumatic dental injuries. Dent Clin North Am 2009;53:729–49, vii.Google Scholar
  8. Chan AW, Wong TK, Cheung GS. Lay knowledge of physical education teachers about the emergency management of dental trauma in Hong Kong. Dent Traumatol. 2001;17:77–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fux-Noy A, Sarnat H, Amir E. Knowledge of elementary school teachers in Tel-Aviv, Israel, regarding emergency care of dental injuries. Dent Traumatol. 2011;27:252–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Glendor U, Halling A, Bodin L, et al. Direct and indirect time spent on care of dental trauma: a 2-year prospective study of children and adolescents. Endod Dent Traumatol. 2000;16:16–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hamilton FA, Hill FJ, Mackie IC. Investigation of lay knowledge of the management of avulsed permanent incisors. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1997;13:19–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hashim R. Investigation of mothers’ knowledge of dental trauma management in United Arab Emirates. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2012;13:83–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hegde AM, Kumar KN, Varghese E. Knowledge of dental trauma among mothers in Mangalore. Dent Traumatol. 2010;26:417–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Holan G, Shmueli Y. Knowledge of physicians in hospital emergency rooms in Israel on their role in cases of avulsion of permanent incisors. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2003;13:13–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lee JY, Divaris K. Hidden consequences of dental trauma: the social and psychological effects. Pediatr Dent. 2009;31:96–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Moazami F, Mirhadi H, Geramizadeh B, Sahebi S. Comparison of soymilk, powdered milk, Hank’s balanced salt solution and tap water on periodontal ligament cell survival. Dent Traumatol. 2012;28:132–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Noori AJ, Al-Obaidi WA. Traumatic dental injuries among primary school children in Sulaimani city. Iraq. Dent Traumatol. 2009;25:442–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. O’Neil DW, Clark MV, Lowe JW, Harrington MS. Oral trauma in children: a hospital survey. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1989;68:691–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Oliveira TM, Sakai VT, Moretti AB, et al. Knowledge and attitude of mothers with regards to emergency management of dental avulsion. J Dent Child (Chic). 2007;74:200–2.Google Scholar
  20. Raphael SL, Gregory PJ. Parental awareness of the emergency management of avulsed teeth in children. Aust Dent J. 1990;35:130–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sae-Lim V, Chulaluk K, Lim LP. Patient and parental awareness of the importance of immediate management of traumatised teeth. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1999;15:37–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Santos ME, Habecost AP, Gomes FV, Weber JB, de Oliveira MG. Parent and caretaker knowledge about avulsion of permanent teeth. Dent Traumatol. 2009;25:203–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Stokes AN, Anderson HK, Cowan TM. Lay and professional knowledge of methods for emergency management of avulsed teeth. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1992;8:160–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Traebert J, Traiano ML, Armenio R, et al. Knowledge of lay people and dentists in emergency management of dental trauma. Dent Traumatol. 2009;25:277–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Vergotine RJ, Koerber A. The relationship of dental visits to parental knowledge of management of dental trauma. Pediatr Dent. 2010;32:329–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Yassen GH, Chin JR, Al-Rawi BA et al. Traumatic Injuries of permanent teeth among 6-12 year-old Iraqi children: A 4 year retrospective study. J Dent Child (Chic). 2013;80:3–8.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. H. Yassen
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. R. Chin
    • 2
  • M. S. Younus
    • 3
  • G. J. Eckert
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Paediatric, Orthodontic and Preventive DentistryMosul University School of DentistryMosulIraq
  2. 2.Department of Paediatric DentistryIndiana University School of DentistryIndianapolisUSA
  3. 3.Directorate of Nineveh HealthMosulIraq
  4. 4.Department of BiostatisticsIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations