European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 14, Issue 6, pp 389–395 | Cite as

Oral manifestations of HIV in children receiving anti-retroviral therapy in Hyderabad, India

  • P. V. BaghirathEmail author
  • A. B. Krishna
  • A. Gannepalli
  • M. M. Ali
Original Scientific Article



To assess and compare the oral manifestations of HIV-infected paediatric patients undergoing ART (anti-retroviral therapy) and those not undergoing ART.


A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst the 5–12 years old, HIV positive children (receiving and not receiving ART) registered at Nireekshana ART centre, Hyderabad and HIV negative children enrolled in a nearby school. HIV-related oral lesions were diagnosed according to WHO criteria. Information on age, gender, place of residence (urban/rural), socio-economic status, duration of HIV infection, duration of ART therapy, use of traditional medicine, presence of HIV-related systemic disease was recorded. CD4+ cell count was also determined for each subject. Chi-square test, stepwise multiple linear and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. For all tests, confidence interval and p value were set at 95 % and p ≤ 0.05, respectively.


Twelve percent and 21.3 % of the study participants were on short-term and long-term ART (Group I), respectively. A greater proportion of HIV patients receiving treatment had CD4+ cell counts of more than 750 cells/mm3. Nearly 81.3 % of HIV patients receiving long-term therapy did not have any oral lesions. Around half of the participants not receiving treatment suffered from HIV-related oral lesions. The best predictors for presence of oral lesions were socio-economic status, group (ART treatment), duration of HIV infection and CD4+ cell count.


The results of the present study demonstrated that ART proved to be effective in reducing the prevalence of HIV-related oral lesions.


Anti-retroviral therapy HIV Oral manifestations 



The authors wish to thank all the study participants for their kind cooperation during the study. Special thanks to Nireekshana ART Centre, Hyderabad and the team of Research Solutions ( for their constant support, concern and motivation throughout our study.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. V. Baghirath
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. B. Krishna
    • 1
  • A. Gannepalli
    • 1
  • M. M. Ali
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Oral Pathology and MicrobiologyPaninneya Dental College and Research CentreHyderabadIndia

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