European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 3–8 | Cite as

Pain-related behaviour in children: a randomised study during two sequential dental visits

  • E. J. HembrechtEmail author
  • J. Nieuwenhuizen
  • I. H. A. Aartman
  • J. Krikken
  • J. S. J. Veerkamp
Original Scientific Article



To determine the difference in pain- and distress-related behaviour in children between two consecutive dental treatment sessions using a computer-controlled local anaesthetic delivery system, with dental anxiety as co-variable.


A randomised prospective study over two sequential visits in three paediatric dental practices. For both visits 112 young, healthy children needing dental treatment were randomly assigned to either the use of the Wand® or the Sleeper One®. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 17. A significance level of p < 0.01 was used, correcting for conducting a high number of tests.


Children showed significantly more muscle tension, more verbal protest, and more crying or screaming during the second treatment.


Sequential dental treatments seem to have a conditioning effect. It is important to know the level of dental anxiety to adjust the treatment sequence to the needs of the child.


Dental anxiety Conditioning Local analgesia Computer-controlled local anaesthetic delivery system (CCLAD) 


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Copyright information

© European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. J. Hembrecht
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. Nieuwenhuizen
    • 1
  • I. H. A. Aartman
    • 2
  • J. Krikken
    • 1
  • J. S. J. Veerkamp
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Behavioral SciencesAcademic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA)AmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Social Dentistry and Behavioral SciencesAcademic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA)AmsterdamThe Netherlands

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