Imaging gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPRs) in prostate cancer
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Despite significant advances in detection and treatment, prostate cancer (PC) remains the most common malignancy and a major cause of cancer death in men worldwide. Imaging is critically important for the diagnosis, staging, and management of men with prostate cancer (PC). The conventional imaging modalities have been employed for local and metastatic staging with limited performance. Whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) using prostate membrane antigen-based tracers is the most widely used in research and clinical applications in this scenario. However, other ways to image PC are available. Here, we review the clinical literatures on the use of gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPRs) as targets for imaging patients with PC.
KeywordsBombesin Prostate cancer PET BBN GRPR PET/MR
LB: literature search, literature review, content planning, and manuscript writing and editing. RL: literature search, content planning, and manuscript writing and editing. MP, SB, and AI: content planning and editing.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
L. Baratto, R. Laudicella, M. Picchio, S. Baldari, and A. Iagaru declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. For this type of study, formal consent is not required. All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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