Sand source and formation mechanism of riverine sand dunes: a case study in Xiangshui River, China
- 6 Downloads
Riverine sand dunes develop as a result of fluvial-aeolian interactions. The primarily barchan dune chains along the Xiangshui River (a branch of the Xar Moron River in the western part of the Horqin Sandy Land of China) form a typical riverine dune field. We collected a series of samples from the riverine sand dunes parallel to the direction of the prevailing wind and investigated the sand sources and formation mechanisms of these dunes by determining the grain size, heavy mineral content and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of the samples. The sand of the near-river dunes was coarser than the sand of the dunes distant from the river, indicating that coarse sand of the valley mainly deposited on near-river dunes. The heavy mineral analysis suggested that wind-sand activity levels were intense on the upwind dunes, but relatively weak on the downwind dunes. This indicated that the sand sources for the near-river dunes were more abundant than those of the distant dunes. Our OSL analysis of samples suggested that the deposition rates on dunes near the river were greater than the deposition rates on dunes distant from the river. The development of dunes along the river indicated that the river played an important role in dune formation and development. In addition, airflow fluctuation and the formation of the waveform dunes had a type of feedback relationship. Grain size, heavy mineral and OSL analyses are widely used methods in wind-sand research. Sand dune grain size characteristics reflect the effects of airflow on the transport and separation of sand materials, as well as the physical characteristics of the sand sources. Heavy mineral characteristics are often used to investigate the relationships between sediments and sand sources. OSL indicates dune age, revealing formation of dunes. Therefore, it is useful to explore dune sand sources, as well as the mechanisms underlying dune formation, by determining grain size, heavy mineral content and OSL. This study investigated the sand sources of riverine dunes and provided new information about riverine dune formation and development.
Keywordsriverine dune grain size heavy mineral optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) Horqin Sandy Land
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
This study is funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41271025) and the National Basic Research Program of China (2016YFA0601901). We wish to thank Professor ZOU Xueyong of the Faculty of Geographical Science of Beijing Normal University, Mr GUO Yunyi of the Forestry Bureau of Ongniud Banner, Inner Mongolia, and Professor ZHAO Xueyong, Professor LI Yuqiang and Professor ZHANG Tonghui of the Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences. We also thank the reviewers and editors for their constructive comments.
- Bagnold R A. 2005. The Physics of Blown Sand and Desert Dunes. New York: Dover Publications Press, 55–56, 149–153.Google Scholar
- Chen W, Dong Z, 1995. Threshold velocities of sand-driving wind in the Taklimakan Desert. Acta Geographica Sinica, 50(4): 361–367. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Duan Z H, Xiao H L, Li X R, et al. 2004. Evolution of soil properties on stabilized sands in the Tengger Desert, China. Geomorphology, 59(1–4): 237–246.Google Scholar
- Ha S, Wang G. 1996. Grain size variation on transverse dune in connection with slope morphology at southeastern fringe of Tengger Desert. Journal of Desert Research, 16(3): 216–221. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Han G, Zhang G F, Yang W B. 2004. A quantitative analysis for the Provenance of dune sand in the Hulun Buir Sandy Land: application of stepwise discriminant analysis to the granulometric data. Acta Geographica Sinica, 59(2): 189–196. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Han G, Zhang G, You L, et al. 2015. A mechanism for the origin and development of the large-scale dunefield on the right flank of Laoha River, Northeast China. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 7(1): 29–39.Google Scholar
- Hunter R E, 1977. Terminology of cross-stratified sedimentary layers and climbing-ripple structures. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 47: 697–706.Google Scholar
- Ji Q H, 1992. The granularity characteristic of deposit in Keriya Drainage. Arid Zone Research, 9(3): 48–56. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Ji Q H, 1996. Application of grain size analysis in the studies of Taklimakan Desert. Journal of Desert Research, 16(2): 173–179. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Kocurek G, Havholm KG. 1994. Eolian sequence stratigraphy-a conceptual framework. In: Weimer P, Posamentier H W. Siliciclastic Sequence Stratigraphy. American Association Petroleum Geologists Memoir, 58: 393–409.Google Scholar
- Li E J, Dong Z B, Zhao J B. 2011. Grain size distribution of the aeolian sediments on the stoss slope of a typical mega-dune in the Badain Jaran Desert. Geography of Arid Areas, 34(3): 471–478.Google Scholar
- Li E., 2011. A comparative study on sediment characteristics of Badain Jilin Desert and Tengger Desert. MSc Thesis. Xi’an: Shanxi Normal University. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Qian Y B. 1991. A Preliminary study on the origin of sand in the Hetian River Basin of the Taklimakan Desert. Arid Zone Research, 8(4): 48–51. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Qian Y B, Zhang X M, Li X M. 1995. A study on grain-size features of sand material of the oases in the southern margin of the Taklimakan Desert. Journal of Desert Research, 15(2): 131–135. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Qian Y B, Zhou X J, Li C S, et al. 2001. Multi-sources of sand minerals for the deserts in the Jungger Basin. Journal of Desert Research, 21(2): 182–187. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Yang Y C, 1984. Preliminary observation of aeolian sand landform in the Yurlung Zangbo Valley. Journal of Desert Research, 4(3): 12–15. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Yi X Y, Zhao H L, Zhang T H, et al. 2005. Influence of wind-sand flow on soil erosion. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 19(3): 59–61. (in Chinese)Google Scholar