Lettera Matematica

, Volume 6, Issue 4, pp 215–219 | Cite as

Education and research: the development of German physics in the nineteenth century: part two

  • Francesco BoriaEmail author
  • Barbara Rapaccini


At the beginning of the nineteenth century, Heidelberg, Königsberg and Göttingen were the main universities in Germany territory, but thanks to the work and convictions of Wilhelm von Humboldt, Berlin became established as a new academic centre. The University of Berlin opened officially in 1810 and, within a few decades, had become central to the education and training system of the whole of Germany, successfully attracting students, researchers and teachers. Research in science was one of the qualifying points of the education and training system of Germany and the new University of Berlin, which included teachers such as Hermann von Helmholtz and Heinrich Hertz, among others.


Education Physics Prussia Humboldt Germany Helmholtz Gymnasium Seminars Research University 



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Copyright information

© Centro P.RI.ST.EM, Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Associazione Umbra Mathesis of TerniTerniItaly
  2. 2.Associazione Umbra Mathesis of TerniTerniItaly

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