Lettera Matematica

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 161–166 | Cite as

Education and research: the development of German physics in the nineteenth century—part one

  • Francesco Boria
  • Barbara Rapaccini


The attribution of many Nobel and other scientific prizes to a large number of German scientists is due to the profound reforms of the educational system first in Prussia and then in Germany during the nineteenth century. This article analyses the main reforms adopted mainly by the Prussian State and focusses on some figures who played key roles in the development of university institutions and scientific faculties.


Education Physics Prussia Humboldt Germany Helmholtz Gymnasium Seminars Research University 


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Copyright information

© Centro P.RI.ST.EM, Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francesco Boria
    • 1
  • Barbara Rapaccini
    • 1
  1. 1.TerniItaly

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