RETRACTED ARTICLE: A Case for a Limited Breeding Exemption from Patent Protection

  • Zhiqian Wan
  • Samuel MengEmail author


A breeding exemption in breeder’s rights law has not been specified in the patent laws of most countries. Since breeding exemption is not a part of research exemption, this paper argues that it is necessary and feasible to introduce into the patent system a limited breeding exemption. Compared with a comprehensive breeding exemption, a limited breeding exemption impairs patent rights less, conforms to the three-step test in Art. 30 of the TRIPS Agreement and is in the public interest. The liability rule is suggested to be used to facilitate the commercialisation of final varieties.


Plant variety rights Plant patent Breeding exemption Research exemption TRIPS Agreement 



The authors would like to acknowledge the support of a grant from the National Planning Office of Philosophy and Social Science of China (No. 16BFX168).


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Copyright information

© Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition, Munich 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Associate Professor; College of Humanity and LawHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.Senior Research Fellow; University of New England Business SchoolArmidaleAustralia

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