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Mitigation of Frequency and Voltage Disruptions in Smart Grid During Cyber-Attack

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In this paper, impacts of cyber-attack on proportional integral derivative controlled automatic generation control unit and automatic voltage regulator have been analyzed individually. A controlled switching unit has been proposed for ensuring frequency stability during an attack. Also, another controlled switching unit, designed for automatic voltage regulator, has been proposed for mitigating voltage disruption during a cyber-attack. The protective model proposed in this paper offers combined protection for frequency and voltage disruptions in a power system during cyber-attack.

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\(\Delta \varOmega \) :

Frequency deviation

\(\Delta {P_\mathrm{L}}\) :

Change in load

\({\tau }_\mathrm{T}\) :

Turbine time constant

\({\tau }_\mathrm{g}\) :

Governor time constant

H :

Generator inertia constant

D :

Frequency-sensitive load coefficient

f :

Nominal frequency

R :

Speed regulation

\({\tau }_\mathrm{A}\) :

Amplifier’s time constant

\(K_\mathrm{A}\) :

Amplifier’s gain

\({\tau }_\mathrm{E}\) :

Exciter’s time constant

\(K_\mathrm{E}\) :

Exciter’s gain

\({\tau }_\mathrm{G}\) :

Generator’s time constant

\(K_\mathrm{G}\) :

Generator’s gain

\({\tau }_\mathrm{R}\) :

Sensor’s time constant

\(K_\mathrm{R}\) :

Sensor’s gain


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Correspondence to M. S. Rana.

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Rahman, M.A., Rana, M.S. & Pota, H.R. Mitigation of Frequency and Voltage Disruptions in Smart Grid During Cyber-Attack. J Control Autom Electr Syst (2020).

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  • Smart grid
  • Cyber-attack
  • Automatic generation control (AGC)
  • Automatic voltage regulator (AVR)
  • Vulnerable parameters