Advertisement

Multiobjective Scheduling-based Energy Management System Considering Renewable Energy and Energy Storage Systems: A Case Study and Experimental Result

  • I. El KafaziEmail author
  • R. Bannari
Article
  • 74 Downloads

Abstract

The fast-growing development of smart grid and renewable energy increases the challenge in balancing the production on local energy consumption. The power scheduling of energy storage has directed to growing interests in energy storage system to increase the use of renewables. In this study, a practical laboratory energy management system considering renewable energy and battery is established. Besides, two control strategies including ‘scheduling’ and ‘ON/OFF’ operation of the grid in the photovoltaic–wind–battery hybrid systems are modeled. This paper proposes a day-ahead optimizing planning using mixed-integer linear programming, aiming to achieve economic benefit by reducing operational costs of the grid. Related to demand-side management, a control technique is developed for a proper scheduling of the power from the hybrid system. The ultimate objective of the aimed strategy is to maximize the advantages of renewable energy in different running conditions such as weather fluctuation and grid support. In addition, a day-ahead optimization for operational costs, as well as a prediction model for PV and WT, is used. The data of renewable productions and load demand are used. The obtained results prove that applying the scheduling strategy for PV–WT–battery and grid operation control models, significant grid decreasing can be achieved related to the case where the grid is managed alone to satisfy the same load demand.

Keywords

Day ahead Renewable energy Optimization Forecasting Multi objective scheduling Energy management 

List of Symbols

Variables

OF

Objective function

T

Time scheduling

\( \Delta t \)

Duration of interval

I

Index of units of res

\( C_{\text{sell}}^{\text{grid}} \)

Cost of selling energy

\( C_{\text{buy}}^{\text{grid}} \)

Cost of buying energy

\( P_{\text{res}} \)

Power from renewables (kW)

\( P_{\text{grid}} \)

Power from the utility (kW)

\( P_{\text{grid/buy}} \)

Power bought from the utility (kW)

\( P_{\text{grid/sell}} \)

Power sold to the utility (kW)

\( P^{\text{bat}} \)

Power of the battery (kW)

\( P_{\text{l}} \)

Power load (kW)

Parameters

\( ES_{ \hbox{max} }^{\text{bat}} \)

Maximum battery energy level

\( ES_{ \hbox{min} }^{\text{bat}} \)

Minimum battery energy level

\( \eta^{{{\text{bat}},{\text{ch}}}} \)

Battery charging efficiency

\( \eta^{{{\text{bat}},{\text{disch}}}} \)

Battery discharging efficiency

\( \lambda_{\text{grid}} \left( t \right),\; B_{t} \)

Binary variable

\( X_{\text{load}} \)

Connection load demand

Abbreviations

MG

Microgrid

REs

Renewable energies

ESS

Energy storage system

EMS

Energy management system

PV

Photovoltaic

WT

Wind turbine

SOC

State of charge

DERs

Distributed energy resources

Notes

References

  1. Beltran, H., Bilbao, E., Belenguer, E., Etxeberria-Otadui, I., & Rodriguez, P. (2013). Evaluation of storage energy requirements for constant production in PV power plants. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 60(3), 1225–1234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beyer, H., Martínez, J., Suri, M., Torres, J., Lorenz, E., Müller, S., Hoyer-Klick, C., & Ineichen, P. (2009). Report on benchmarking of radiation products. In Sixth framework programme MESOR, management and exploitation of solar resource knowledge. [Online]. Available at: http://www.mesor.org/docs/MESoR_Benchmarking_of_radiation_products.pdf.
  3. Borowy, B. S., & Salameh, Z. M. (1996). Methodology for optimally sizing the combination of a battery bank and PV array in a wind/PV hybrid system. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversions, 11(2), 367–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bueno, C., & Carta, J. A. (2005). Technical-economic analysis of wind-powered pumped hydrostorage systems. Part I: Model development. Solar Energy, 78, 382–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Castillo-Cagigal, M., Caamao-Martin, E., Matallanas, E., Masa-Bote, D., Gutirrez, A., Monasterio-Huelin, F., et al. (2011). PV self-consumption optimization with storage and active DSM for the residential sector. Solar Energy, 85(9), 2338–2348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chaoui, H., & Gualous, H. (2017). Adaptive fuzzy logic control for a class of unknown nonlinear dynamic systems with guaranteed stability. Journal of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40313-017-0342-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Choi, S., Kim, B., Cokkinides, G. J., & Meliopoulos, A. P. S. (2011). Feasibility study: Autonomous state estimation in distribution systems. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 26(4), 2109–2117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chou, K. C., & Corotis, R. B. (1981). Simulation of hourly wind speed and array wind power. Solar Energy, 26, 199–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Das, R., Thirugnanam, K., Kumar, P., et al. (2014). Mathematical modeling for economic evaluation of electric vehicle to smart grid interaction. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 5, 712–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De Matos, J. G., Ribeiro, L. A. D. S., & Gomes, E. C. (2013). Power control in AC autonomous and isolated microgrids with renewable energy sources and energy storage systems. In Proceedings of the IEEE 39th annual conference on industrial electronics society, Vienna, Austria (pp. 1827–1832).Google Scholar
  11. El Kafazi, I., Bannari, R., & Abouabdellah, A. (2016). Modeling and forecasting energy demand. In 4th Edition of the international renewable and sustainable energy conference (IRSEC’16 November 14-17, 2016) (pp. 746–750).Google Scholar
  12. El Kafazi, I., Bannari, R., Abouabdellah, A., Aboutafail, M. O., & Guerrero, J. M. (2017). Energy production a comparison of forecasting methods using the polynomial curve fitting and linear regression. In 5th Edition of the international renewable and sustainable energy conference (IRSEC’17December 04-07, 2017).Google Scholar
  13. El Kafazi, I., Bannari, R., Lassioui, A., & Aboutafail, M. O. (2018). Power Scheduling for Renewable Energy Connected to the grid. In 2018 3rd international conference on power and renewable energy.  https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20186408008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Farzin, H., Firuzabad, M. F., & MoeiniAghtaie, M. (2017). A stochastic multi-objective framework for optimal scheduling of energy storage systems in microgrids. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 8(1), 117–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fathima, A. H., & Palanisamy, K. (2015). Optimization in microgrids with hybrid energy systems: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 45, 431–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hocaoglu, Faith O., Gerek, Omer N., & Kurban, Mehmet. (2009). A novel hybrid (wind-photovoltaic) system sizing procedure. Solar Energy, 83, 2019–2028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hooshmand, A., Asghari, B., & Sharma, R. (2014). Experimental demonstration of a tiered power management system for economic operation of grid-tied microgrids. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 5(4), 1319–1327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. ISCC21. (2008). Guide for optimizing the performance and life of lead-acid batteries in remote hybrid power systems. IEEE Std 1561-2007, pp. C1–25.Google Scholar
  19. Jiang, Q., Xue, M., & Geng, G. (2013). Energy management of microgrid in grid-connected and stand-alone modes. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 28(3), 3380–3389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kakigano, H., Miura, Y., & Ise, T. (2013). Distribution voltage control for DC microgrids using fuzzy control and gain-scheduling technique. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 28, 2246–2258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Katiraei, F., Iravani, R., Hatziargyriou, N., & Dimeas, A. (2008). Microgrids management. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, 6(3), 54–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lasnier, F., & Ang, T. G. (1990). Photovoltaic engineering handbook. Bristol: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Li, G., Xi, F., Li, X., et al. (2012). Coordinated control of battery storage system and diesel generators in ac island microgrid. In 7th Proceedings of the IEEE international power electronics and motion control conference, China (pp. 112–117).Google Scholar
  24. Lin, Lu, Yang, Hongxing, & Burnett, John. (2002). Investigation on wind power potential on Hong Kong islands—An analysis of wind power and wind turbine characteristics. Renewable Energy, 27, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Markvard, T. (2000). Solar electricity (2nd ed.). London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  26. Marra, F., & Yang, G. (2015). Decentralized energy storage in residential feeders with photovoltaics. In P. D. Lu (Ed.), Energy storage for smart grids (pp. 277–294). Boston: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nejabatkhah, F., & Li, Y. W. (2015). Overview of power management strategies of hybrid AC/DC microgrid. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 30(12), 7072–7089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nikraz, M., Dehbonei, H., & Nayar, C. V. (2003). A DSP controlled PV system with MPPT. In Australian power engineering conference, Christchurch (pp. 1–6).Google Scholar
  29. Pahasa, J., & Ngamroo, I. (2015). PHEVs bidirectional charging/discharging and SoC control for microgrid frequency stabilization using multiple MPC. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 6(2), 526–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sangwongwanich, A., Yang, Y., & Blaabjerg, F. (2015). High-performance constant power generation in grid-connected PV systems. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 99, 1.Google Scholar
  31. Sarker, M. R., Ortega-Vazquez, M. A., & Kirschen, D. S. (2015). Optimal coordination and scheduling of demand response via monetary incentives. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 6(3), 1341–1352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shi, W., Xie, X., Chu, C.-C., & Gadh, R. (2015). Distributed optimal energy management in microgrids. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 6(3), 1137–1146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Siano, P., Cecati, C., Yu, H., & Kolbusz, J. (2012). Real time operation of smart grids via FCN networks and optimal power flow. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 8(4), 944–952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Singh, M., Kumar, P., & Kar, I. (2013). A multi charging station for electric vehicles and its utilization for load management and the grid support. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 4, 1026–1037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tani, A., Camara, M. B., & Dakyo, B. (2015). Energy management in the decentralized generation systems based on renewable energy ultra-capacitors and battery to compensate the wind/load power fluctuations. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 51, 1817–1827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Triki, A., Maidi, A., Belharet, K., & Corriou, J.-P. (2017). Robust control strategy for a conduction–convection system based on the scenario optimization. Journal of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40313-017-0317-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tsikalakis, A. G., & Hatziargyriou, N. D. (2008). Centralized control for optimizing micro grids operation. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 23, 241–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Vieira, P. A. V., Pinheiro, B., Perez, F., & Bortoni, E. C. (2018). Sizing and evaluation of battery energy storage integrated with photovoltaic systems. International Journal of Smart Grid and Sustainable Energy Technologies, 2, 67–72.Google Scholar
  39. Xu, L., & Chen, D. (2011). Control and operation of a DC micro grid with variable generation and energy storage. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 26, 2513–2522.Google Scholar
  40. Zhang, Y., Gatsis, N., & Giannakis, G. (2013). Robust energy management for microgrids with high-penetration renewables. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 4(4), 944–953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhao, Z. (2012). Optimal energy management for microgrids. Ph.D. dissertation, Clemson University.Google Scholar
  42. Zhou, W., Yang, H. X., & Fang, Z. H. (2007). A Novel model for photovoltaic array performance prediction. Applied Energy, 84(12), 1187–1198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Brazilian Society for Automatics--SBA 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory Systems Engineering, ENSAIbn Tofail University KenitraKenitraMorocco

Personalised recommendations