Leading RNA Interference Therapeutics Part 1: Silencing Hereditary Transthyretin Amyloidosis, with a Focus on Patisiran
In 2018, patisiran was the first-ever RNA interference (RNAi)-based drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Now pharmacology textbooks may include a new drug class that results in the effect first described by Fire and Mello 2 decades ago: post-transcriptional gene silencing by a small-interfering RNA (siRNA). Patients with hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis (hATTR amyloidosis) present with mutations in the transthyretin (TTR) gene that lead to the formation of amyloid deposits in peripheral nerves and heart. The disease may also affect the eye and central nervous system. The formulation of patisiran comprises the RNAi drug encapsulated into a nanoparticle especially developed to deliver the anti-TTR siRNA into the main TTR producer: the liver. Hepatic cells contain apolipoprotein E receptors that recognize ApoE proteins opsonized in the lipid carrier and internalize the drug by endocytosis. Lipid vesicles are disrupted in the cell cytoplasm, and siRNAs are free to trigger the RNAi-based TTR gene silencing. The silencing process involves the binding of siRNA guide strand to 3′-untranslated region sequence of both mutant and wild-type TTR messenger RNA, which culminates in the TTR mRNA cleavage by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) as the first biochemical drug effect. Patisiran 0.3 mg/kg is administered intravenously every 3 weeks. Patients require premedication with anti-inflammatory drugs and antagonists of histamine H1 and H2 receptors to prevent infusion-related reactions and may require vitamin A supplementation. Following patisiran treatment, TTR knockdown remained stable for at least 2 years. Adverse effects were mild to moderate with unchanged hematological, renal, or hepatic parameters. No drug-related severe adverse effects occurred in a 24-month follow-up phase II open-label extension study. At the recommended dosage of patisiran, Cmax and AUC values (mean ± standard deviation) were 7.15 ± 2.14 μg/mL and 184 ± 159 μg·h/mL, respectively. The drug showed stability in circulation with > 95% encapsulated in lipid particles. Metabolization occurred by ribonuclease enzymes, with less than 1% excreted unchanged in the urine. Patisiran ameliorated neuropathy impairment according to the modified Neuropathy Impairment Score + 7 analysis of the phase III study. The Norfolk Quality of Life-Diabetic Neuropathy score and gait speed improved in 51% of the patisiran-treated group in 18 months. Additionally, the modified body mass index showed positive outcomes. Altogether, the data across phase I–III clinical trials points to patisiran as an effective and safe drug for the treatment of hATTR amyloidosis. It is hoped that real-world data from a larger number of patients treated with patisiran will confirm the effectiveness of this first-approved siRNA-based drug.
Simoneide S. Titze-de-Almeida, Pedro Renato de Paula Brandão, Ingrid Faber, and Ricardo Titze-de-Almeida are members of the Network for Translational Neuroscience - International Consortium for Academic Cooperation in Experimental and Clinical Studies Regarding Neurodegenerative Diseases (http://dgp.cnpq.br/dgp/espelhogrupo/5933421119277338).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Ingrid Faber received financial support from Pfizer to attend the ARIA VII meeting in Frankfurt, Germany, in February 2018. Simoneide S. Titze-de-Almeida, Pedro Renato de Paula Brandão, and Ricardo Titze-de-Almeida declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.
The authors declare that no funding was received in relation to this review article.
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